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Crisis Management/Emergency Response

Alaska

Last Updated: 1/5/2009

Response and Management Plans: Statute 14.33.100 (1999) requires each district to develop a model school crisis response plan for use by each school. Each school shall then develop their own specific crisis response plan and form a crisis response team consisting of, at a minimum, a principal, a certified member of the school staff, and one parent of a child attending the school. The plans should also include annual training for district employees and should be developed in consultation with local social service agencies and local law enforcement authorities.

Statute 14.03.140 requires school principals or other person in charge of each school to instruct and train pupils by means of drills so that in an emergency they can exit the school building in the shortest possible time without confusion or panic.  Drills must be held at least once each month during the school term, weather permitting.

Regulation 4 AAC 60.130 requires each pre-elementary school to develop a disaster plan which must include provisions for the accountability of each child in the school until he is released to an appropriate authority.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Statute 14.33.120 (2001) requires each governing body to have policies for reporting conflicts. This statute also requires districts to report information related to incidents of disruptive or violent behavior to the department. Additionally, Statute 14.33.130 (2000) requires any teacher or another person responsible for students who receives information about a student that may affect the safety of students or staff to notify the student's teacher or school administrator, and if a student is observed committing a crime, the teacher shall report the crime to the local law enforcement agency.

Statute 14.33.140 (2000) exempts any teacher or any other person responsible for students from any liability for civil damages resulting from the enforcement of an approved school disciplinary and safety program unless actions constitute gross negligence or reckless or intentional misconduct.


Alabama

Last Updated: 7/17/2013

Response and Management Plans: The State Board of Education/Alabama Board of Nursing Curriculum to Teach Unlicensed School Personnel How to Assist with Medications in the School Setting (2003) requires schools to establish an emergency action plan that include emergency procedures covering on-campus and off-campus occurrences for students with known life-threatening conditions. This plan shall be incorporated into each school's crisis management or safety plan.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Code 16-1-24 (1982) requires principals, teachers, and other employees of public schools to report acts of violent disruptive incidents occurring on school property during school hours or during school activities. Teachers and other school employees are to immediately report to the principal any incident and the principal in turn is to report to the superintendent within 72 hours of any incident of which he/she may have knowledge. Code 16-1-24.3 (1995) requires local boards of education to implement policies and procedures requiring the expulsion of students for a period of one year who have been determined to have possessed a firearm in a school building, on school grounds, on school buses, or at other school-sponsored functions.


Arkansas

Last Updated: 12/28/2013

Response and Management Plans: Code 6-15-1301 directs the Department of Education to create a Safe Schools Committee. This committee is responsible for developing model policies and procedures for emergency plans for terrorist attacks, specifically contingency plans for attacks using biological agents, nerve gas or similar chemical agents, and war. Code 6-15-1302 (2003) instructs school districts to develop safety plans in the event of a war or terrorist attack affecting the school and, to the extent practicable, student should participate in practice drills executing the plans.

Reporting Incidences of Violence: Code 6-17-113 (1999) requires the principal or other person in charge of a public school to immediately report any act of violence or crime involving a deadly weapon on school property or information leading to a reasonable belief that a person has committed or has threatened to commit an act of violence or crime to the superintendent of the school district and the appropriate local law enforcement agency.


Arizona

Last Updated: 3/4/2009

Response and Management Plans: ARS 15-341 (2005) requires the governing board, in conjunction with local law enforcement agencies and medical facilities, to develop an emergency response plan for each school within the district.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: ARS 15-341 requires the governing board to "Report to law enforcement agencies any suspected crime against a person or property that is a serious offense or that involves a deadly weapon, dangerous instrument, or serious physical injury and any conduct that poses a threat of death or serious physical injury to employees, students, or anyone on the property of the school". This statute also requires the governing board to prescribe and enforce policies and procedures requiring parents/guardians and school employees to report any suspected incident of harassment, intimidation, or bullying.


California

Last Updated: 2/25/2009

Education Code 32282 (2004) requires the comprehensive school safety plan to include strategies and programs that address routine and emergency disaster procedures. The school building disaster plan shall be ready for implementation at any time, to maintain the safety and care of pupils and staff.

Bullying/Harassment: Education Code 32282 (2004) requires the comprehensive school safety plan to include a discrimination and harassment policy and hate crime reporting procedure. Education Code 48900 (2007) states that only when the superintendent determines that a pupil has harassed, threatened or intimidated another pupil may a student be suspended or recommended for expulsion from school.

Fighting/Gangs: Education Code 48900 (2007) states that only when the superintendent or the principal of the school in which the student is enrolled determines that a pupil has willfully used force or violence upon another person, except in self-defense, may a student be suspended or recommended for expulsion from school.

Hazing: Education Code 32051 (no date available) charges any person engaging in hazing on school property with a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of not less than $100 but not more than $5000, or imprisonment in the county jail for not more than one year, or both. Education Code 48900 (2007) states that a pupil who has engaged in or attempted to engage in hazing may be suspended or recommended for expulsion from school.

Weapons: Education Code 48900 (2007)  states that only with the superintendent's determination that a pupil possessed, sold, or otherwise furnished any firearm, including an imitation knife, explosive, or other dangerous object, may a student be suspended or recommended for expulsion from school.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Education Code 32282 (2004) requires the comprehensive school safety plan to include a discrimination and harassment policy and hate crime reporting procedure.

Education Code 49370 (1999) requires specific persons, including school teachers, administrators, school aides, school playground workers, and bus drivers, to report missing children to a law enforcement agency in a timely manner.

Collaboration with Law Enforcement: No state policy.


Colorado

Last Updated: 11/9/2010

Response and Management Plans: Statute 22-32-109.1 (2008) requires district boards of education to adopt the national response framework released by the federal department of homeland security and NIMS formally through orders or resolutions.  This includes incorporating the Incident Command System into school response plans and working closely with community first responders in ongoing training and exercising of written response plans.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Statute 22-32-109.1 (2008) requires district boards of education to adopt policies whereby the principal of each public school must annually report to the district board of education information pertaining to the learning environment in the school for that year, including the number of violations of the conduct and discipline code.


Connecticut

Last Updated: 10/25/2011

Response and Management Plans: Statute Chapter 170 Sec. 10-231 (2000) allows crisis response drills to be substituted for the mandated monthly fire drill once every three months in schools. Statute Chapter 170 Sec. 10-220f (1998) allows local and regional boards of education to establish school district safety committees to review the adequacy of emergency response procedures at each school.

The State Board of Education's Position Statement on Student Support Services (2010) recommends school districts establish school-based and/or district-wide support services teams to assess the health and mental health needs of schools and coordinate the delivery of an array of services, including crisis response.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Statute Chapter 170 Sec. 10-222d (2002) requires local and regional boards of education to adopt policies and procedures allowing for the anonymous reporting of bullying by students, allowing written reporting of bullying by parents and guardians, and requirements for school personnel to notify school administrators when acts of bullying or written reports of bullying are received. Schools are also required to keep records of the number of verified bullying incidents and keep such record available for public inspection. 


Delaware

Last Updated: 9/10/2010

Response and Management Plans: Administrative Code 14:621 (2009) requires all public and charter schools and alternative program sites to have a written policy outlining an emergency preparedness plan consistent with the Emergency Preparedness Guidelines. In addition, the district policy must state how the emergency preparedness plan be implemented at each school within the district. The district policy must require at least one emergency crisis event or crisis situation annually.

Administrative Code 14:608 (2003) allows students who are the victim of a violent felony while in or on school grounds, or who are enrolled in a persistently dangerous school", to transfer to another safe school within the same school district.

In light of the terrorist attacks, SJR No. 1 (2005) directs the department of education and department of homeland security to update and revise existing school safety emergency procedures practiced by local districts which should include lock down" procedures that prevents entrance into the building except from one entry way and allows the occupants to exit.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Code 14:4112 requires the reporting of violent crimes against students, volunteers, school employees, or that occur on school property or at a school function, including sexual offenses, assault, possession of weapons, or any violent felony. These reports are to be made by school employees to the principal who then reports to the Department of Education and, in specific cases, to local law enforcement.

Administrative Code 14:601 (2002) requires the Superintendent of each school district and program administrator for each charter school and alternative school or consortia to report to the Department of Education all school crimes stated in Code14:4112. Seven other crimes, including bullying, theft, and vandalism, are also to be reported within five days of their occurrence.


Florida

Last Updated: 4/23/2013

Response and Management Plans: Statute 1006.07(4) (2004) requires the district school board to provide for the proper attention to health, safety, and other matters relating to the welfare of students, including emergency drills and procedures. The district board shall formulate policies and procedures for emergency drills and actual emergencies, including natural disasters, fires, bomb threats, etc. The board shall also establish model emergency management and emergency preparedness procedures for weapon-use and hostage situations, hazardous materials or toxic chemical spills, weather emergencies, and exposure as a result of a manmade emergency. The statute further requires district school boards to provide for the welfare of students by using the Safety and Security Best Practices to conduct a self-assessment of the district's current safety and security practices. The self-assessment includes indicators that the district has developed a district-wide plan for potential attacks against school sites or students. The Statewide Policy for Strengthening Domestic Security in Florida’s Public Schools addresses the Florida Domestic Security Strategy, which is a comprehensive approach to ensure that Florida will address all known vulnerabilities, providing a level of certainty that, given the nature of the possible target and its potential vulnerability, it has taken every prudent step to limit that vulnerability consistent with the value of the potential target.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Statute 1006.13(3) (2002) requires each district to enter into agreement with the county sheriff's office and local police department specifying guidelines to ensure that felonies and violent misdemeanors are reported to law enforcement. Statute 1006.09(6-7) (2002) requires each school principal to report data concerning school safety and discipline to the Department of Education on prescribed forms and to develop a plan to verify the accuracy of reported incidents.

Statute 1003.32 (2003) requires each teacher or other school staff member to report any suspicion of a crime of violence committed on school property. Any person making such a report shall be immune from civil or criminal liability. Further, the school board is to take reasonable steps to ensure that teachers, other school staff, and students are subject to any undue risk of violence or harm when there is knowledge of a potential risk of physical violence in the schools. 

Statute 1006.141 (2002) allows the department to establish and operate a statewide toll-free school safety hotline in contract with the Florida's Sheriffs Association. This hotline is for the purpose of reporting incidents that affect the safety and well-being of the school's population.


Georgia

Last Updated: 7/31/2008

Response and Management Plans: Georgia Code 20-2-1185  (no date available) requires schools to adopt school safety plans to respond to incidents of violence, natural disasters, hazardous materials, and acts of terrorism. Public schools must also address security issues with school transportation and with-in 1,000 feet of school owned or leased property. Public schools may also request state-funding for the installation of safety and security devices. The Georgia Emergency Management Agency is also required to provide training and technical assistance to public school systems and develop a crisis response plan.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Georgia Code 20-2-740 (no date available) requires local boards of education to file an annual report with the Department of Education regarding disciplinary and placement actions taken during the previous school year.


Hawaii

Last Updated: 8/25/2009

HRS 707-716 (1992) considers a terrorist threat against a public servant, including an educational worker, a first degree offense, class C felony.

Response and Management Plans: No state policy.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: HRS 302A-1002 (1996) requires the board to adopt rules requiring teachers, officials, and other department employees to report to the appropriate authorities any knowledge of crimes committed or planning to be committed on school property during school hours or during activities supervised by the school. Specifically, crimes related to arson, assault, disorderly conduct, dangerous weapons, firearms, and harassment amongst others.

Education Rule 8-19-19 (2001) further requires teachers, officials, or other employees of the department to report to the principal or their designee any Class A or B offense which has or may be committed against a student, teacher, official, or other department employee. The principal or their designee must then, after investigation, report the offense to the district superintendent within five days of determination. State Board of Education Policy 4201 (2002) requires school personnel to report incidences of use of force or physical intervention to the principal. Education Rule 8-19-21 (2001) states that any teacher, official, or other district employee who fails to report Class A or B offenses may be disciplined by oral warning, written warning, suspension without pay, demotion, or dismissal. The superintendent of education shall furnish an annual written notice to all schools and districts of this policy.


Iowa

Last Updated: 11/29/2010

Response and Management Plans: No state policy.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Code 280.17A (2005) requires public schools to have procedures of reporting the possession of a dangerous weapon on school premises to law enforcement agencies. 281 IAC 11.5 (2003) requires school districts to report data and requested information related to violent criminal offenses, per PL 107-110 (2001). Code 280.24 (1997) requires the board of directors of each public school and the authorities in charge of each accredited nonpublic school [to] prescribe procedures to report any use or possession of alcoholic liquor, wine, or beer or any controlled substance on school premises to local law enforcement agencies, if the use or possession is in violation of school policy or state law".

Code 280.27 (2005) states that any school employee of a district, accredited nonpublic school, or area education agency who participates in good faith and acts reasonably in the making a report to, or investigation by, an appropriate person or agency regarding violence, threats of violence, or other inappropriate activity against a school employee or student in a school building, on school grounds, or at a school-sponsored function" is immune from any liability.


Idaho

Last Updated: 2/28/2013

Response and Management Plans:  State Board of Education Administrative Rule 08.02.03.160 (page 33) (2002) also requires school districts to have comprehensive policies and procedures that address building safety, including evacuation drills.

Reporting Incidents of Violence
: Idaho's department of education requires schools to file a year-end Safe & Drug-Free School Incident Report, which includes reporting incidents of harassment, bullying, fights, and weapons.

Statute 33-1225 (no date available) states that any communication by any person to a school principal, or designee, stating that a specific threat has been made by a person to commit violence on school property by use of firearms, explosive, or deadly weapons shall only be subject to liability if clear evidence of falsity or recklessness is provided.


Illinois

Last Updated: 12/15/2008

Response and Management Plans105 ILCS 128 (2005) School Safety Drill Act requires all public and nonpublic schools to review and update emergency and crisis response plans for each school building annually and to conduct a minimum of three evacuation drills (at least one with the local fire department), one bus evacuation drill, one tornado/shelter–in place drill, and one strongly encouraged law enforcement drill.  A one-page report upon conclusion of each school’s annual review is required to be submitted to each party that participates in the review and to the appropriate regional superintendent of schools.  Non-public schools are required to submit the one-page report to the Office of the State Fire Marshall.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: 105 ILCS 5/10-20.14 (2002) requires the parent-teacher advisory committee, in cooperation with local law enforcement agencies, to develop policy guideline procedures to establish and maintain a reciprocal reporting system between the school district and local law enforcement agencies regarding criminal offenses committed by students.


Indiana

Last Updated: 12/1/2010

Response and Management Plans: State Board of Education 511 IAC 4-1.5-7 (2000) requires every school corporation to develop a crisis intervention plan for the school corporation and each school in the corporation. This plan must include crisis management and intervention provisions and act in concert with the school's and corporation's emergency preparedness plans. 511 IAC 6.1-2-2.5 requires each school corporation to develop a written emergency preparedness plan for the school corporation and each school in the corporation. The requirements of the plan are outlined in the statute.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Code 20-33-9-10 (2005) requires any individual who has reason to believe that a school employee has received a threat or is the victim of intimidation to report this information. IC 20-34-6-1 (2010) requires each school corporation to submit a report to the department  for the current school year for each school in the school corporation and for the entire school corporation. The report must include information regarding the number of arrests on school corporation property, offenses for which students were arrested on school property, number of contacts with law enforcement personnel from a school employee that have resulted in arrests on school property, arrest statistics, information regarding police officers and security guards employed by the school.


Kansas

Last Updated: 11/20/2011

Response and Management Plans: No state policy.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Statute 72-89b03 (1999) requires school employees to report information and the identity of any pupil whose conduct, amongst others, endangers the safety of others to the superintendent of schools. Further, each board of education is required to annually compile and report to the state board information relating to school safety and security.


Kentucky

Last Updated: 5/22/2013

Response and Management Plans: KRS 158.445 (2000) requires each board of education to adopt a plan for immediate and long-term strategies to address school safety and discipline.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: KRS 158.445 requires each local school to begin assessing the school safety and student discipline plans and to review the reports of school incidents related to disruptive behavior. KRS 158.150 (2001) requires the superintendent, principal, assistant principal, or head teacher of any school to report any suspensions of a pupil in writing to the superintendent and to the parent,guardian, or custodian of the pupil.


Louisiana

Last Updated: 7/31/2008

Response and Management Plans: RS 17:416.16 (2001) requires each school principal to prepare a school crisis response management and response plan in accordance with school board policy. The plan shall be devised with input from students enrolled in the school, and their parents, teachers at the school, other school employees, community leaders, local law enforcement, and fire, public safety, and emergency preparedness officials. Each school is to submit a plan in writing to the school board for approval. The plan must be reviewed annually and revised as necessary.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: RS 14:95.2 (1999) determines that if a student is detained by the principal or other school official for carrying or possessing a firearm or dangerous weapon on school property or the school principal or other school official confiscates or seizes a firearm or concealed weapon from a student while on school property, at school function, or on a school bus, the principal or other school official in charge at the time shall immediately report the detention or seizure to the police department or sheriff's department where the school is located and shall deliver any firearm or weapon seized to that agency.

RS 17:416 (2003) requires each school board to adopt procedures allowing teachers or other school employees to report incidents of discipline violations to the principal. RS 17:252 (2003) also requires each school district to develop and submit a master plan for supporting student behavior and discipline that may include providing for better and more useful reporting of school behavioral and disciplinary problems annually.

RS 17:416.13 deems any school employee, or school volunteer, who in good faith reports an incident of harassment, intimidation, or bullying to the appropriate school officials in accordance with local board policy immune from liability for damages arising from failure to remedy the reported incident.


Massachusetts

Last Updated: 7/31/2008

Response & Management Plans: Section 363 of the FY02 state budget requires school superintendents to develop a multi-hazard evacuation plan for each school, which includes procedures for school crises, including plans and policies for maintaining a safe and orderly environment during a crisis and forming a crisis response team.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: General Law 71.37L (no date available) requires all school department personnel to report in writing to their immediate supervisor any incident involving a student possessing or using a dangerous weapon on school premises at any time. Supervisors must then file said report with the superintendent of the school, who then must file copies of the report with the local chief of police, the department of social services, the office of student services or its equivalent, and the local school committee. 603 CMR 26.08 (no date available) requires schools to develop and publish procedures for investigating and resolving complaints alleging discrimination or harassment.


Maryland

Last Updated: 9/15/2010

Response and Management Plans: State Board of Education Regulations 13A.02.02.01, 13A.02.02.02, 13A.02.02.03, and 13A.02.02.04 require each local school system, in consultation with other health and safety officials, to develop an emergency plan for each public school and central office to deal with man-made, natural, and technological hazards. Each plan shall be on file and an annual schedule of drills for each school shall be developed and implemented.

Reporting Incidences of Violence: State Board of Education Regulation 13A.08.01.12-1 requires instances of firearms possession or violent crimes, as defined in this statute, on school property or at school sponsored events to be reported to the appropriate juvenile justice or criminal enforcement agency. HB 407 (2005) requires the State Department of Education to require local boards of education to report incidents of harassment or intimidation against students in public schools under the local board's jurisdiction. The Department is also required to create and distribute standard victim of harassment and intimidation report forms.


Maine

Last Updated: 6/4/2013

Response and Management Plans: Statute Title 20-A 1001.16 (2007) requires the school board to, annually approve a plan developed by the school unit administration working with local public safety, mental health and law enforcement officials to deal with crises and potential crisis situations involving violent acts by or against students in each school in the school administrative unit.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: The requirements(Chapter 125 Section 10. School Health and Safety Services, 10.05) of the system-wide student code of conduct mandate that all serious offenses, as determined by the Superintendent, must be reported to law enforcement authorities.


Michigan

Last Updated: 2/21/2010

Response and Management Plans: MCL 380.1308 (1999) requires the implementation of a statewide school safety information policy. It establishes procedures to be followed and when law enforcement is to be involved in the case of emergency or reported criminal incidence. School boards are also required to cooperate with local law enforcement agencies to ensure that detailed and accurate building plans, blueprints, and site plans, as appropriate, for each school building operated by the school board are provided to the appropriate local law enforcement agency.

The State Board's Policy on Integrating Mental Health in Schools (2010) recommends schools to annually review the Crisis Intervention policy annually and to strengthen the Crisis Intervention Team and its role in responding to mental health concerns in the school setting. It also recommends that each school ensure that the school/district is included in the community Emergency Preparedness Plan.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: MCL 380.1310a (2000) requires local school boards, at least on an annual basis, to report to the superintendent of public instruction expulsions and incidents of crime occurring at school within the school district. Further, each school building, on a weekly basis, is required to collect and keep current information needed for the report. Additionally, the Statewide Safe School Choice Policy (2003) requires each school board to report to the State Superintendent of Public Instruction a report on each Persistently Dangerous School in its jurisdiction.

MCL 380.1313 requires confiscated weapons be reported and turned over to a law enforcement agency for investigation. Similarly, MCL 380.1308 requires school officials to report to law enforcement agencies when a school safety incident has occurred at school.

 


Minnesota

Last Updated: 11/26/2011

Response and Management Plans: Statute 121A.035 (1999) requires school boards to adopt a district crisis management policy. The policy must include an individual district's plan to respond to potential crisis situations such as natural disasters, hazardous materials, and weapons in schools. Districts may use the  Comprehensive School Safety Guide (2008) as a guide.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Statute 121A.05 (1998) requires a school board to have a policy requiring a school official to refer a pupil who brings a firearm to school unlawfully to the criminal justice or juvenile delinquency system.

Statute 121A.06 (2005) requires the commissioner of education, in consultation with the criminal and juvenile information policy group to develop a standardized reporting form to be used by schools to report incidences involving the use or possession of a dangerous weapon in school zones. Statute 121A.69 (2003) requires each school board to adopt a written policy on hazing, which includes reporting procedures.

Statute 121A.29 (1998) requires "a teacher in a nonpublic school participating in a school district chemical use program, or a public school teacher, who knows or has reason to  believe that a student is using, possessing, or transferring  alcohol or a controlled substance while on the school premises or involved in school-related activities, shall immediately notify the school's chemical abuse preassessment team of this  information."


Missouri

Last Updated: 7/20/2009

Response and Management Plans: The Missouri Violence Prevention Curriculum Framework (2008) recommends guidelines for crisis management and emergency response preparation plans. Revised Statute 160.480 (2004) authorizes local school boards to adopt an emergency preparedness plan regarding the use of school resources which includes school facilities, foods, school buses, and equipment if a natural disaster or other emergency occurs.

Reporting Incidences of Violence: Revised Statute 160.261 (2004) requires school administrators to report acts of school violence to teachers and other school personnel who are directly responsible for the student's education or interact with the student on a professional basis. The Revised Statute also requires school administrators to report to the appropriate law enforcement agency any of the felonies listed in the Statute, including the possession of a weapon. Similarly, Revised Statute 167.117 (2000) requires the principal to immediately report to law enforcement officials and to the superintendent any instance of assault in the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd degree against a pupil or school employee, while on school property which includes a school bus that is servicing the district or while involved in school activities. Further, the principal is to report to the local law enforcement and to the superintendent any instances when a pupil has a weapon in his/her possession or placed elsewhere on school premises.


Mississippi

Last Updated: 8/4/2008

Response and Management Plans: Code 37-3-83 (2001) requires that the school board of each school district shall adopt a comprehensive local school district school safety plan and shall update the plan on an annual basis.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Code 37-11-29 (1996) requires all school employees who has knowledge of any unlawful activity which occurred on educational property or during a school-related activity to report such activity to the superintendent. Unlawful activity includes possession or use of a deadly weapon, aggravated assault, simple assault, rape, sexual battery, and others. State Board Policy JDF-1 (1994) developed a form to report school violence.


Montana

Last Updated: 11/9/2010

Response and Management Plans: Montana has a recommended crisis management response protocol, which includes the involvement of the Office of Public Instruction's Crisis Management Team to work with schools in the case of a crisis.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Per federal requirements, public schools are required to use the school discipline reporting manual and worksheet as a standard method in Montana public schools for reporting incidents of violence.


North Carolina

Last Updated: 12/18/2010

Response and Management Plans: Statute 115C-105.47 (1999) requires each local school board to develop a local school administrative unit safe school plan to provide that every school is safe, secure, and orderly. While crisis management/emergency response plans are not explicitly mentioned, they are implied as a component for school safety under this statute.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: State Board of Education Policy HRS-A-007 (2004) requires local school boards to develop and maintain policies and procedures to prevent, intervene, investigate, document, and report all acts of bullying, harassment, and discrimination. Statute 115C-47 (2004) requires local school boards to report all acts of school violence to the State Board of Education.

State Board of Education Policy HRS-A-000 (2010) requires principals that have actual knowledge of any cirminal offenses on school property to report those offenses to law enforcement. It also requires local education agencies to annually report the following crimes to the State Board of Education: assault resulting in serious personal injury, sexual assault, sexual offense, rape, kidnapping, indecent liberties with a minor, assault involving the use of a weapon, posession of a firearm, weapon or controlled substance in violation of the law, assault on school officials, employees or volunteers, homicide, robbery with a dangerous weapon, making bomb threats or engaging in bomb hoaxes, willfully buring a school buidling,  or unlawfully, underaged sales, purchase, provision, possession, or consumption of alcoholic beverages.


North Dakota

Last Updated: 12/27/2011

Response and Management Plans: No state policy.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Code 15.1-19-13 (no date available) requires teachers with knowledge that a student is using, is in possession of, or is delivering alcohol or a controlled substance while the student is on school property, involved in a school-related activity, or in  attendance at a school-sponsored event" to notify the principal. Code 15.1-24-05 (no date available) grants immunity from liability for any individual who in good faith reports alleged chemical abuse to the chemical abuse preassessment team.


Nebraska

Last Updated: 12/21/2011

Response and Management Plans: 92 NAC 10-011.01C (no date available) requires school systems to have a school safety and security committee which meets annually to prepare and/or review safety and security plans and procedures, including emergency plans and procedures.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Statute 28-711 (2005) requires a nurse, school employee, social worker, or other person [who] has reasonable cause to believe that a child has been subjected to abuse or neglect or observes such child being subjected to conditions or circumstances which reasonably would result in abuse or neglect, [to] report such incident or cause a report to be made to the proper law enforcement agency or to the department".


New Hampshire

Last Updated: 8/4/2008

Response and Management Plans: No state policy.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: RSA 193-D:4 (2001) requires school employees or employees contracted by the school or school district who have witnessed or have information from the victim of an act of theft, destruction, or violence in a safe school zone to their supervisors in writing immediately. They in turn must forward such information to the school principal who must then file it with local law enforcement. Reports must include names and addresses, if known, of suspects and witnesses and the identification of the alleged act.

RSA 193-F:3 (2004) requires school employees or employees contracted by the school or school district to report witnessed incidents or reliable information of bullying or harassment to the principal, who must then report the incident to the superintendent and the school board.

RSA 631:7 (1993) requires educational institutions to report incidences of student hazing to law enforcement authorities.


New Jersey

Last Updated: 1/22/2013

Reporting Incidents of Violence: N.J.S.A. 18A:17-46 (2001) and State Board of Education Administrative Code N.J.A.C. 6A: 16-5.3 require all school employees observing or having direct knowledge from a participant or victim of an act of violence to file a report describing the incident to the school principal, and a copy of the report must be submitted to the chief school administrator, who is required to submit a report to the Commissioner of each incident of violence, vandalism and alcohol and other drug abuse, utilizing the Electronic Violence and Vandalism Reporting System. The information to be included in the report is identified in the statute. N.J.S.A. 18A:37-15 (2002) requires all school districts to adopt a policy for reporting incidents of harassment, intimidation, or bullying. State Board of Education Administrative Code N.J.A.C. 6A:16-5.3 requires the incident report to be on a form adopted for such purposes by the district board of education; however, the form must include all of the incident detail and offender and victim information reported on the State's Electronic Violence and Vandalism Reporting System. State Board of Education Administrative Code N.J.A.C. 6A:16-6 and the required Memorandum of Agreement Between Education and Law Enforcement Officials require all criminal acts to be reported to law enforcement officials.

Response and Management Plans: State Board of Education Administrative Code N.J.A.C. 6A:16-5.1 (2005) requires each district board of education to develop and implement comprehensive plans, procedures, and mechanisms that provide for safety in the schools of the district.  N.J.A.C. 18A:41-6 requires schools to hold a fire drill within 15 days of the beginning of the school year, as well as two active shooter, non-fire evacuation, bomb threat and lockdown drills, respectively. Schools may also hold shelter-in-place drills, reverse evacuation, evacuation to a relocation site, testing of school’s notification system and procedures as well as other emergency preparedness exercises beyond the specific drills required by the law.


New Mexico

Last Updated: 5/17/2011

Response and Management Plans: 22-13-14 NMSA, per SB 230, (2005) requires emergency drills in all schools to include: fire, shelter-in-place (lock down), and evacuation. Subsection M of 6.30.2.10 NMAC (2006) provides definitions and clarifications for requirement for emergency drills. The language in concerning fire drills" is replaced with emergency drills." Schools are required to perform an emergency drill at least once each week during the first four weeks of the school year and at least once each month thereafter until the end of the school year. Two drills during the year shall be shelter-in-place drills and one shall be an evacuation drill, as directed by the department. The remainder of the drills shall be fire drills.

6.12.6.8.D (8) NMAC, requires school safety plans at each school building focused on supporting healthy and safe environments and including but not necessarily limited to : prevention, policies and procedures, tactical emergency response plans, and recovery.

6.12.6 NMAC (2006) requires local school districts to adopt wellness policies that address student and school employee wellness through a coordinated school health approach including school safety plan at each school building focused on supporting healthy and safe environments that includes prevention, policies and procedures, and emergency response.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: State Board of Education Administrative Code 6.11.2.10 NMAC (2000) gives administrative authority the discretion, unless a local board policy provides otherwise, to notify law enforcement, the local Children's Court attorney, or district attorney when a search discloses evidence of a crime or delinquent act.


Nevada

Last Updated: 8/4/2008

Response and Management Plans: NRS 394.1687 (2001) requires the development committee of every private school to develop a crisis response plan, to include provisions for communications, immediate response to a crisis, evacuation plans, enforcement of discipline, and maintenance of a safe and orderly environment. NRS 394.1688 (2001) requires that this plan be reviewed and updated at least once a year. NRS 394.1694 (2001) also requires, without limitation, that regulations requiring training and practice in crisis response procedures be adopted by all private schools.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: NRS 394.1696 (2001) requires the school principal of a private school, or the designee, to contact all appropriate local agencies in the event of a crisis.


New York

Last Updated: 12/27/2011

Response and Management Plans: Education Law 2801-a (no date available) requires every school board to adopt and amend a comprehensive district-wide school safety plan and building-level school safety plans regarding crisis intervention, emergency response and management".  Commissioner's Regulation 155.17 (no date available) requires each board of education to prepare and annually update an emergency management plan and school safety plan.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Commissioner's Regulation 100.2 (l) (2001) requires each board of education to adopt and enforce a code of conduct, which includes adopting procedures by which violations are reported. Commissioner's Regulation 100.2 (gg) (2001) requires school districts to annually report all violent or disruptive incidents that occurred in the prior school year. Education Law 2801-a requires school safety plans to contain strategies for improving communication among students and between students and staff and reporting of potentially violent incidents, such as establishing anonymous reporting mechanisms for school violence".


Ohio

Last Updated: 8/4/2008

Response and Management Plans: ORC 3313.536 (2002) requires the local board of education and school district to adopt a comprehensive school safety plan for each school building under the board's control.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: No state policy.


Oklahoma

Last Updated: 9/2/2008

Response and Management Plans: Statute 63-681 (2003) requires each school and administration building to have written plans and procedures in place for protecting students, faculty, administrators, and visitors from natural and man-made disasters and emergencies. Each school district must annually report to the local school board or board of regents on the status of emergency preparedness and identify each school's safety needs.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: No state policy beyond federal Title IV requirements.


Oregon

Last Updated: 8/4/2008

Response and Management Plans: School health services, per OAR 581-022-0705 (1996), are required to have a written plan for response to medical emergencies for each building in keeping with OAR 581-022-1420 (1996), which requires plans to also address any emergency situation.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Chapter 617 Oregon Laws (2001) requires school districts to adopt policies for reporting incidents of bullying, harassment, and intimidation. ORS 339.315 (1999) further requires any school employee, director, or administrator, public or a private, with reasonable cause to believe a person, while in school, is or has within 120 days possessed a firearm or destructive device to report this information to law enforcement within the county.


Pennsylvania

Last Updated: 8/4/2008

Response & Management Plans: Pennsylvania has no specific state policy requiring crisis or emergency response plans, but the NCLB Act requires such plans for federal funding.
 

Reporting Incidents of Violence: 24 P.S. 13-1303-A (1997) require all school entities to make at least one report per year of all new incidents involving acts of violence, weapon's possession, or possession, use, or sale of controlled substances by any person on school property to the Office for Safe Schools. 24 P.S. 13-1317.2 (1997) requires all district superintendents to report incidents involving the possession of a weapon to law enforcement officials and the department of education.


Rhode Island

Last Updated: 2/13/2013

Response and Management Plans: Statute 16-21-23 (2001) requires the school committee to adopt a comprehensive school safety plan that includes crisis intervention and emergency response and management. The plan shall be developed by members of the school committee, students, teachers, parent organizations, school safety personnel, school administration, and law enforcement officials. Statute 16-21-24 (2004) sets minimum requirements for school safety plans, school emergency response plans, and school crisis response plans. They are to include policies and procedures for responding to and preventing a wide variety of violent incidents. Emergency, crisis, and post-incident response teams are also to be created.

Statute 16-21-4 (2007) requires every public and private school to perform two evacuation drills and two lockdown drills (for potential dangers within the building) among the fifteen mandatory drills in each school year.

Reporting Incidents of Violence
: A Guide to Preventing Bullying, Teen Dating Violence andSexual Violence in Rhode Island Schools (6/2012)addresses the requirements of schools in reporting incidents of bullying, teen dating violence, and sexual violence.  The Rhode Island Statewide Bullying Policy (2011) requires school staff, volunteers, and students who observe an act of bullying or who have reasonable grounds to believe that bullying is taking place must report the bullying to school authorities. Failure to do so may result in disciplinary action. The victim of bullying, however, shall not be subject to discipline for failing to report the bullying. Student reports of bullying or retaliation may be made anonymously, provided, however, that no disciplinary action shall be taken against a student solely on the basis of an anonymous report.
 
Statute 16-21-16 (1976) grants immunity from liability any teacher who reports suspicions about a minor student's abuse of narcotic drugs or other drugs to school officials pursuant to school policy.
 

South Carolina

Last Updated: 9/17/2009

Response and Management Plans: State Board of Education Regulation R 43-166 (1997) requires emergency and disaster plans be developed by each school. The State Department of Education must also create a Model Safe Schools Checklist, which includes a comprehensive safety plan, to be used by public school districts.

The Unsafe School Choice Option of the NCLB Act (2003) also requires districts to report all school-level violent crimes to the State Department of Education.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Code 59-63-130 (2004) requires school employees, students, and volunteers to report any reliable information about an act of harassment, intimidation, or bullying to an appropriate school official. Code 59-63-140 (2004) requires school districts to adopt policies for reporting harassment, intimidation, or bullying at school. A provision for reporting such acts anonymously must also be included.


South Dakota

Last Updated: 8/4/2008

Response and Management Plans: No state policy.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: No state policy.


Tennessee

Last Updated: 9/29/2011

Response and Management Plans: Code 49-6-804 (2007) requires each LEA to adopt a comprehensive district wide safety plan and building level school safety plan regarding crisis intervention, emergency response and emergency management.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Code 49-6-4301 (2000) requires teachers who observe or have knowledge of an assault and battery committed by a student on school property must immediately report said action to the principal, who then must report to local law enforcement. Code 49-6-4209 (2007) requires school principals to report incidents or suspected incidents of illegal weapons possession on school grounds or within any school buildings or structure under the principal's supervision to the appropriate law enforcement officer. School personnel are required to report such incidents to the school principal, the designee, or the proper authorities if neither is available. Code 49-6-1016 (2005) also encourages districts to include in their policies a procedure for reporting acts of harassment, intimidation or bullying.


Texas

Last Updated: 10/1/2010

Response and Management Plans: Education Code 37.202 (2001) states that the Texas School Safety Center is to provide information on school safety, including research, training, and technical assistance related to successful school safety programs.  Education Code 37.205 requires the Center to conduct a safety training program, addressing the following issues:  (1) development of a positive school environment and proactive safety measures, (2) school safety courses for law enforcement officials, (3) discussion of school safety issues with parents and community members, (4) assistance in developing a Multi-Hazard Emergency Operations Plan. 

Education Code 37.108 (2005) requires school districts to adopt and implement a Multi-Hazard Emergency Operations Plan.  The plan must address mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery, as recommended by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.  It must include emergency response training for all school district personnel and mandatory drills to prepare students and all personnel for emergency response.  It also requires measures to ensure coordination between local emergency management agencies, law enforcement and fire departments in the event of an emergency.  In addition, districts must perform security audits of facilities every three years, with results reported to the district's board of trustees.

Code 37.109 (2009) requires each school district to establish a school safety and security committee. The committee shall participate on behalf of the district in developing and implementing emergency plans, provide the district with any campus, facility, or support services information required for the safety and security audit required by Code 37.108(b), and the audit report required in 37.108(c), and review the reports submitted to ensure accuracy.

Reporting Incidence of Violence: Education Code 37.020 (2003) requires each school district to report to the commissioner information, including name, race, sex, and date-of-birth, of all students placed in a disciplinary alternative program or who were expelled. This policy includes all violent offenses, and the information reported must also include whether the juvenile justice system was involved.

Education Code 37.015 (2003) requires the principal of a public school to notify any school district police department and the police department if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the possession of a weapon occurred in school, on school property, or at school-sponsored activity on or off school property.


Utah

Last Updated: 2/8/2012

Response and Management Plans: R277-400 (2000) establishes general criteria for both Emergency Preparedness and Emergency Response plans required of schools and districts in the event of natural disasters or school violence emergencies".

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Code 53A-11-908 (1997) requires school employees to report when criminal violations, such as physical violence and hazing, to the principal, who then must report the incident and actions taken to the district superintendent within 10 working days.


Virginia

Last Updated: 1/22/2013

Response and Management Plans: Code 22.1-279.8 (2004) requires each school board to develop a written school crisis and emergency management plan, which may be based on a model created and revised. School safety audits are also required to be conducted annually by every local school and the results made public. Code 22.1-279.6 (2005) requires school boards to adopt a code of student conduct, which specifies the procedures for suspension and expulsion of students who violate the code and requires schools to have a contingency plan for emergencies according to 8VAC20-131-260 (2000).

Reporting Incidents of Violence8VAC20-560-10 (1992) requires the principal of each public school to collect and maintain information on incidence of crime and violence and the students involved in such incidence that occur on school property, on a school bus, or at a school-sponsored activity. This information is reported semi-annually to the division superintendent who files an aggregate report with the Department of Education annually.

Code 22.1-279.3:1 (2005) calls school boards to adopt procedures that require reports to be made to the division superintendent and the principal on all incidents on a school bus, on school property, or at a school-sponsored event involving assault or assault and battery, any conduct involving controlled substances, threats against school personnel, the illegal carrying of a firearm, any illegal conduct involving explosives or threat to use explosives, or the arrest and charging of a student. The offending student's parents must also be informed of any such criminal offense committed and be referred to law enforcement for details. Code 16.1-260 (2004) requires the intake officer of a juvenile court to file a report with the division superintendent of the school division in which any student is subject of a petition alleging they committed one of the listed offenses.

Law enforcement is also required to report any felonious offense to the school principal and the district superintendent, and the principal shall notify law enforcement when a student commits any of the fore-mentioned acts excepting assault or assault and battery that does in bodily injury.


Vermont

Last Updated: 8/4/2008

Response and Management Plans: No state policy.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: 16 VSA 565 requires school boards to establish procedures that direct students and staff to report hazing and harassment policy violations. 16 VSA 1166 requires each superintendent to annually report to the commissioner each firearms expulsion's circumstance, the total number of students expelled, and the type of firearm involved.


Washington

Last Updated: 8/4/2008

Response and Management Plans: No state policy.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: RCW 28A.600.480 (2002) encourages school employees, students, and volunteers who have witnessed, or have reliable information about a student has been subjected to, harassment, intimidation, or bullying to report such an incident to an appropriate school official.


Wisconsin

Last Updated: 10/15/2008

Response and Management Plans: No state policy.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Statute 115.38 (2001) requires school districts to file an annual school performance report which reports the number of suspensions and expulsions in the district's schools. The offense, length of punishment, and grade, gender, ethnicity, and any disabilities of the offender are also to be reported.


West Virginia

Last Updated: 4/29/2009

Response and Management Plans: No state policy.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: Code 18-2C-3 requires each county board of education to establish a procedure for reporting incidents of harassment, intimidation, or bullying as defined in Code 18-2C-2 (2001). Code 18-2C-4 (2001) provides immunity for a school employee, student, or volunteer who in good faith reports an incident of harassment, intimidation, and bullying. Board Policy 2421 requires county boards to design and implement prevention and response programs, to outline investigatory and reporting procedures, and to delineate penalties. 

Board Policy 4373 (2002), the Student Code of Conduct, requires all violations of the Code to be reported to the appropriate, designated school personnel for appropriate action. County boards are thus required to have an identified procedural mechanism for reporting alleged violations to said personnel. Nothing should disallow for the direct reporting to the county superintendent, the WVA Human Rights Commission, or to a law enforcement agency.


Wyoming

Last Updated: 3/25/2012

Response and Management Plans: Rule 4362, Chapter VI, Section 17 (2001) requires school districts to adopt policies and procedures to address crises at both the district and individual school levels. Crisis management plans are to be developed and practiced on a regular basis.

Reporting Incidents of Violence: No state policy.


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