Organized Sports

Alaska

Last Updated: 8/14/2011

Interscholastic Athletics: Statute 14.18.040 (1981) requires equal opportunity for both sexes in athletics and recreation. Separate school-sponsored teams may be provided for each sex, however, equipment and supplies, services, and opportunities shall be provided to both teams with no disparities.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Statute 14.30.142 requires the governing body of a school district to consult with the Alaska Activities Association to develop and publish guidelines and other information to educate coaches, student athletes and parents of athletes regarding the nature and risks of concussions. Guidelines must include a description of the risks and standards for return to play and require a student suspected of having sustained a concussion during practice or a game to be immediately removed. Students removed from participation for suspicion of a concussion may not return to play until the student has been evaluated and cleared for participation by a qualified person (as defined in the statute). A student may not participate in school athletic activities unless the student and parent or guardian have signed a verification of receipt of the guidelines. 

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


Alabama

Last Updated: 8/14/2011

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: HB108 (2011) requires the governing body of each sport or recreational organization to develop guidelines and other pertinent information and forms to inform and educate youth athletes and their parents of the nature and risk of concussion and brain injury, including continuing to play after a suspected concussion or brain injury. Student athletes and their parents or guardians must annually sign and return an information sheet on concussion and head injury. Each organization must ensure that coaches receive annually training to learn how to recognize the symptoms of a concussion and how to seek proper medical treatment for a person suspected of having a concussion. To the extent possible, the training should begin before the beginning of practice for the school athletic team. The statute requires that an athlete who is suspected of sustaining a concussion or brain injury in practice or game be immediately removed from participation. The student may not return to play until they are evaluated by a licensed physician and receive written clearance to return to play.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): SB306 (2009) requires an automated external defibrillator to be placed in each pubic K-12 school. The superintendant of each local  school  must designate at least one employee to be trained in the use of the AED. 


Arkansas

Last Updated: 12/27/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury:
 SB773 (2013) authorizes the state department of education to use up to $1 million from its General Improvement Fund on a pilot project on concussion management. The policy does not specify anything regarding removal from play, forcing concussed student-athletes to receive medical clearance before returning to play, or requiring the parents or guardians of student-athletes to sign a concussion information form before their children can participate in interscholastic athletics.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): Automated External Defibrillator (AED): The Rules Governing School-Based Automated External Defibrillator (AED) Devices and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Programs in Arkansas Public Schools (2010), with codes 6-10-122 and 6-10-123 requires each school campus to have an AED on campus by May 31, 2011. Appropriate school personnel must be adequately trained by May 31, 2011, and on an ongoing basis after May 31, 2011. Training must also incorporate testing of psychomotor skills as outlined in the Rule; coordination with the emergency medical services system; and an ongoing quality improvement program to monitor training and evaluate response with each use of an AED. AED and CPR training count fully toward professional development requirements for teachers and school personnel. Each school must designate personnel to be responsible for the maintenance of the AED and have the equipment inspected by a qualified technician once a year.


Arizona

Last Updated: 10/23/2011

Interscholastic Athletics: ARS 15-705 (no date available) requires each governing board to adopt policies and procedures including minimum statewide requirements regarding pupil participation in extracurricular activities for pupils in grade 6-12. ARS 15-348 (no date available) allows common school students to participate in practice sessions of noncontact sports with secondary school students. ARS 15-347 (no date available) requires a governing board to take into consideration the cultural traditions of pupils when establishing rules regarding pupil participation in extracurricular school activities.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury:  SB1521 (2011) requires the governing board of school districts to prescribe and enforce guidelines, information and forms regarding the risk of head injury and concussion to educate coaches, pupils and parents. The policy must require that the student and their parent or guardian sign an information form at least once each year about the nature and risk of concussion. In addition, it must require that a pupil who is suspected of sustaining a concussion in a practice, game or other interscholastic athletic activity be immediately removed. A team parent may remove his or her own child from play, along with a coach or licensed health care provider. A student may return to play on the same day if a health care provider rules out a suspected concussion at the time the pupil is removed from play. On a subsequent day, the student may return to play only if they have been evaluated and received written clearance from a licensed health care provider trained in the evaluation and management of concussions and head injuries.  The statute also provides immunity from civil liability for a health care provider who is a volunteer and provides clearance to participate, except in cases of gross negligence or wanton or willful neglect. A school district and its employees and volunteers are also immune from civil liability for a person or organization’s failure or alleged failure to comply with the requirements. 

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


California

Last Updated: 11/1/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: Education Code 33350 (1976) encourages districts to provide extra-curricular physical activity and fitness programs and clubs and encourages use of school facility for physical activity and programs sponsored by the school and/or the community. The Education Code also establishes the California Department of Education as the authority over interscholastic athletics.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Education Code 49475 (2011) requires a school district that elects to offer athletics to require that an athlete suspected of having a concussion or head injury to be removed from the activity and be cleared by a health care provider before returning to the activity. Any group that uses school facilities or grounds for supervised recreational activities must also comply with the requirements. Specifically, the policy requires school districts to comply with the following: 1) An athlete who is suspected of sustaining a concussion or head injury in an athletic activity shall be immediately removed from the activity for the remainder of the day, 2) The athlete shall not be permitted to return to the activity until he or she is evaluated by a licensed health care provider, trained in the management of concussions, and receives written clearance to return, and 3) On a yearly basis, a concussion and head injury information sheet shall be signed and returned by the athlete and the athlete's parent or guardian prior to the start of the athlete's season of practice or competition.           

Groups that utilize school district facilities or grounds for recreational activities to provide a statement of compliance with the policies for the management of concussion and head injury described above.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


Colorado

Last Updated: 5/12/2011

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Code 25-43-103 requires each public and private middle and high school to require each coach of a youth athletic activity that involves interscholastic play to complete an annual concussion recognition education course. It also requires each private club or public recreation facility and athletic league that sponsors youth athletic activities to require each volunteer coach to complete an annual concussion recognition course. The requirements of the course are outlined in the statute. If a coach who is required to complete concussion recognition education suspects that a youth athlete has sustained a concussion following an observed or suspected blow to the head or body in a game, competition or practice, the coach must immediately remove the athlete from the game. Once removed from play, a parent or guardian must be notified and the athlete may not return to play or participate in any supervised team activities until they are evaluated by a health care provider and receives written clearance.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): Code 22-2-125 (2005) encourages each school district to acquire an AED for placement in each public school and each athletic facility maintained by a school district at a location separate from the public school. It also provides for immunity from liability for any civil damages in relation to an act or failure to act in relation to the AED, unless the acts are grossly negligent or willful and wanton.


Connecticut

Last Updated: 12/28/2010

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports Related Head Injury: Public Act 10-62 (2010) requires any person who holds a coaching permit by the State Board and is a coach of intramural or interscholastic athletics to complete an initial training course regarding concussions and head injuries prior to commencing the coaching season. The coach must also annually review current and relevant information regarding concussions. Beginning in 2015, and each year thereafter, a coach must complete a refresher course not later than 5 years after completion of the initial training, and again once every five years as condition of the reissuance of a coaching permit. Requirements of the course are outlined in the Act. The State Board is required to develop or approve a training course along with a refresher course.

The Act also requires a coach of any intramural or interscholastic athletics to immediately remove a student athlete from participating in any intramural or interscholastic athletic activity who is observed to exhibit signs, symptoms or behaviors consistent with a concussion following an observed or suspected blow to the head or body, or is diagnosed with a concussion, regardless of when such concussion or head injury may have occurred. The coach may not permit the student athlete to participate in any supervised team activities involving physical exertion, including, but not limited to, practices, games or competitions, until such student athlete receives written clearance to participate in such supervised team activities involving physical exertion from a licensed health care professional trained in the evaluation and management of concussions. Following clearance the coach may not permit such student athlete to participate in any full, unrestricted supervised team activities without limitations on contact or physical exertion until the same conditions as listed above are met. The State Board of Education may revoke the coaching permit of any coach found to be in violation of this section. 

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.

 


District of Columbia

Last Updated: 8/11/2014

Interscholastic Athletics:  Section 401 of the Healthy Students Act of 2010 states that schools shall have the goal for children to engage in physical activity for 60 minutes each day. Schools shall promote this goal and seek to maximize physical activity, including supporting athletic programs.

 

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: The Athletic Concussion Protection Act of 2011 requires that an athlete suspected of sustaining a concussion during an athletic activity be removed from play and prohibited from returning until the athlete has received written clearance from a licensed health-care provider. It also requires the Department of Health to develop a training program and educational materials about the nature and risks of concussions that must be distributed to athletes and the parent or guardian of the athlete prior to their participation in athletic activity.  The athlete and the parent or guardian of the athlete shall sign a statement acknowledging receipt of the materials and return it to the organizing entity before the athlete shall be allowed to participate in the athletic activity. The policy requires the mayor to establish a training program that addresses: the nature and risk of a concussion, the criteria for removing athletes and allowing them to return, and the risks for not removing athletes from athletic activity. The Mayor is also able to expand the authority of the act to include athletic activities that are non-interscholastic school-sponsored or organized by a nongovernmental organization.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED):No policy.


Delaware

Last Updated: 11/1/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: Administrative Code 14:1001 (2002) states, Local school districts shall establish their own academic eligibility criteria for participation in extra-curricular activities for all extra-curricular activities except for interscholastic athletics", which are defined in Administrative Codes 14:1008 and 14:1009 (2004).

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Administrative Code 14:303 (2011) requires the Delaware Interscholastic Athletic Association to work in collaboration with the Department of Education to adopt rules and regulations applicable to member schools regarding the appropriate recognition and management of student athletes exhibiting signs or symptoms consistent with a concussion.  The rules and regulations shall include, but not be limited to, the following requirements:
(1) Each student athlete and the athlete’s parent or guardian shall annually sign and return a concussion information sheet designed by the Association prior to the athlete initiating practice or competition.
(2) Each coach shall complete concussion training consistent with a timetable and curriculum established by the Association. 
(3) A student athlete shall be promptly removed from play if the athlete is suspected of sustaining a concussion or exhibits signs or symptoms of concussion until completion of assessment by a qualified healthcare professional or medical clearance.
(4) Written clearance for return to play after a concussion shall be from a qualified physician.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


Florida

Last Updated: 3/31/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: Statute 1000.05 (2012) prohibits the exclusion of students from participating in any interscholastic, club, or intramural athletics offered by a public K-20 educational institution based on gender. The Statute further requires equal athletic opportunity for both genders.

Statute 1002.20 (2012) mandates that all students first enrolling in a school be eligible to participate in high school athletic competition. The Statute also specifies that students who meet academic and conduct requirements shall be eligible to participate in extra-curricular activities.

Statute 1006.15 (2012) outlines the eligibility requirements for participation in interscholastic activities as a minimum of a 2.0 GPA in the previous semester; fulfillment of the requirements laid out in an academic performance contract if the student's GPA falls below a 2.0; have a 2.0 cumulative GPA; and the maintenance of satisfactory conduct.

Statute 1006.20 (2012) designates the Florida High School Athletic Association as the governing nonprofit organization of athletics in Florida public schools. If the Association fails to meet the provisions of the Statute, the Commissioner of Education has the authority to designate another nonprofit organization to govern athletics with State Board of Education approval.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Statute 1006.20 (2012) requires the Florida High School Association (FHSAA) must adopt guidelines to educate athletic coaches, officials, administrators, and student athletes and their parents of the nature and risk of concussion and head injury. It also requires the organization to adopt bylaws or policies that require the parent of a student who is participating in interscholastic athletic competition or who is a candidate for an interscholastic athletic team to sign and return an informed consent that explains the nature and risk of concussion and head injury, including the risk of continuing to play after concussion or head injury, each year before participating in interscholastic athletic competition or engaging in any practice, tryout, workout, or other physical activity associated with the student’s candidacy for an interscholastic athletic team.

FHSAA is required to adopt bylaws or policies that require each student athlete who is suspected of sustaining a concussion or head injury in a practice or competition to be immediately removed from the activity. A student athlete who has been removed from an activity may not return to practice or competition until the student submits to the school a written medical clearance to return stating that the student athlete no longer exhibits signs, symptoms, or behaviors consistent with a concussion or other head injury. Medical clearance must be authorized by a health care practitioner trained in the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of concussions as defined by the Sports Medicine Advisory Committee of the Florida High School Athletic Association.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): Statute 1006.165 (2012) requires each public school that is a member of the Florida Athletic Association must have an operational AED on school grounds. Each school must ensure that all employees or volunteers who are reasonably expected to use the device obtain appropriate training, including a course in CPR or first aid that includes CPR training, and demonstrated use of the AED. 

Georgia

Last Updated: 12/30/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: State Board of Education Rule 160-5-1-.19 (1997) requires each local school board to adopt a policy regulating competitive interscholastic activities for grades 6-12. Student eligibility and physical examination requirements are outlined in the rule.

Concussion or Sports-Related Head Injury
: Code 20-2-324.1 (2013) requires each local board of education, administration of a nonpublic school and governing body of a charter school to adopt and implement a concussion management and return to play policy that includes the following components: 1) an information sheet to all youth athletes’ parents or legal guardians informing them of the nature and risk of concussion and head injury, 2) requirement for removal from play and examination by a health care provider for those exhibiting symptoms of a concussion during a game, competition, tryout or practice and 3) for those youth that have sustained a concussion (as determined by a health care provider), the coach or other designated personnel shall not permit the youth athlete to return to play until they receive clearance from a health care provider for a full or graduated return to play.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): 
Code 20-2-775 (2001) requires each public high school with an interscholastic athletics program to have at least one functional AED on site at all times and easily accessible during any school related function. Each school must ensure that expected users receive training in CPR and AED use through a certified course. Additional expectations of the schools in regards to the AED are outlined in the statute.


Hawaii

Last Updated: 12/30/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion or Sports Related Head Injury: HB 2273 (2012) requires the department of education and the Hawaii High School Athletic Association to develop a concussion educational program for students and student athletes 14-18 years old. The program must include:

(1)    Education of students, student athletes, parents, sports officials, school faculty and staff, and school administrators on the signs and symptoms of a concussion and what to do if someone demonstrates any of them.

(2)    Annual educational session for coaches and athletic trainers about the signs and symptoms of a concussion

(3)    The need for mandatory removal of a student from the athletic activity if demonstrating any signs or symptoms of a concussion.

(4)    The need for a concussed student’s licensed health care provider to evaluate the student to determine ability to return to play.

(5)     Monitoring of a student’s return to physical activity by the school’s certified athletic trainer (if there is one employed by the school).

The policy also requires the development of an education program for every school that is a member of the Hawaii High School Athletic Association on how to develop a school concussion awareness plan. Requirements of the plan are outlined in the policy. Amongst other things, it requires annual concussion awareness education for parents and students who participate in a school’s athletic team or programs. The parents and students must sign a concussion information sheet certifying that they have attended and received concussion awareness education. It also requires immediate removal from a game, practice or other activity for any student who exhibits signs, symptoms, or behaviors consistent with a concussion. To return to play, students must obtain written clearance from a licensed health care provider prior to returning to academics and athletics which may require the student to follow a plan designed to aid them recovery.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED):
No state policy.


Iowa

Last Updated: 8/17/2011

Interscholastic Athletics: 281 IAC 36.14 prescribes rules for participation in extracurricular athletic competition. 281 IAC 36.15 prescribes the eligibility requirements. Code 280.13 does not allow a public school to participate in any extracurricular interscholastic athletic contest unless the organization is registered with the department of education.

Concussion and Sports Related Head Injury: Code 280.13C requires the Iowa high school athletic association and the Iowa girls high school athletic union to work together to distribute the CDC guidelines and other information to inform and educate coaches, students, and parents and guardians of students of the risks, signs, symptoms, and behaviors consistent with a concussion or brain injury, including the danger of continuing to play after suffering a concussion or brain injury and their responsibility to report such signs, symptoms, and behaviors if they occur. It requires the parent or guardian and student to annually sign and return a concussion and brain injury information sheet (provided by each district and non-public school) prior to the student’s participation in any extracurricular interscholastic activity for grades 7-12. If a student’s coach or contest official observes signs, symptoms, or behaviors consistent with a concussion or brain injury in an extracurricular interscholastic activity, the student must be immediately removed from participation. The student may not return to participate until they have been evaluated by a licensed health care provider trained in the evaluation and management of concussions and other brain injuries, and have received written clearance.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


Idaho

Last Updated: 2/28/2013

Interscholastic Sports: No state policy.

Concussion and Head-Related Sports Injury: Code 33-1620 (2010) requires the state board of education to collaborate with the Idaho high school activities association to develop guidelines and other pertinent information and forms to inform and educate coaches (both paid and volunteer), youth athletes, and their parents and/or guardians of the nature and risk of concussion and head injury. 

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


Illinois

Last Updated: 8/21/2011

Interscholastic Athetlcs: No state policy.

Concussion or Sports-Related Head Injury: 70 ILCS 1205 (2011) requires  the state board of education to adopt a policy regarding student athlete concussions and head injuries that is in compliance with policies of the Illinois High School Association. It also requires the Illinois High School Association to provide educational materials to districts that describe the nature and risk of head injuries. Districts must use these materials to educate coaches, student athletes and parents or guardians of student athletes of the nature and risk of concussions and head injuries, including continuing to play after a head injury or concussion.  School boards must adopt a policy regarding student athlete concussions and head injuries that is in compliance with the protocols, policies, and by-laws of the Illinois High School Association. Information on the school board’s concussion and head injury policy must be a part of any written instrument that a school district requires a student athlete and his or her parents or guardian to sign before participating in practice or interscholastic competition.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): 210 ILCS 74 (2010) requires schools to have an AED on site along with a trained AED user available during activities or events sponsored and conducted or supervised by their employees.

Sports-Related Drug Testing: The Illinois High School Association, the organization that governs participation in interscholastic athletics, requires random testing of high school athletes who have qualified as individuals or as members of a team for selected state series competition. The Performance-Enhancing Drug Testing Policy (2008) outlines the requirements.


Indiana

Last Updated: 8/21/2011

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports Related Head Injury: IC 20-34-7 requires the department to disseminate guidelines, information and forms to each school corporation to inform and educate coaches, student athletes, and parents of students athletes of the nature and nature and risk of concussion and head injury to student athletes, including the risks of continuing to play after concussion or head injury. The materials may be disseminated in an electronic format. The statute requires that each year, before beginning a practice for an interscholastic or intramural sport, each high school student athlete and their parent sign an information sheet about the risk of concussion or head injury. The statute requires a high school student athlete who is suspected of sustaining a concussion or head injury in a practice or a game must be removed from play and may not return until they have been evaluated by a licensed health care provider and given written clearance. The statute provides immunity from liability of civil damages resulting from an act or omission in the rendering of an evaluation for a licensed health care provider acting as a volunteer who in good faith authorizes a student athlete to return to play.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


Kansas

Last Updated: 7/22/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Code 72-135 (2011) prohibits school athletes from participating in any sport competition or practice session unless such athlete and their  parent or guardian have signed, and returned to the school, a concussion and head injury information release form for each year they participate in school-related sport competition. If a school athlete suffers, or is suspected of having suffered, a concussion or head injury during a sport competition or practice session, such school athlete immediately shall be removed from the sport competition or practice session. Any school athlete who has been removed from a sport competition or practice session shall not return to competition or practice until the athlete is evaluated by a health care provider and the health care provider provides such athlete a written clearance to return to play or practice.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


Kentucky

Last Updated: 5/22/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: 702 KAR 7:065 (2004) designates the Kentucky High School Athletic Association as the Kentucky Board of Education’s agent to manage interscholastic athletics at the high school level.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: KRS 160.445 (2009) requires each interscholastic coach to complete training on how to recognize the symptoms of a concussion and how to seek medical treatment for a person suspected of having a concussion. 

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


Louisiana

Last Updated: 8/21/2011
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Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: SB189 (2011) requires the governing authority of each public and nonpublic school to provide information to all coaches, officials, volunteers, youth athletes and their parents/guardians about the nature and risk of concussion and head injury, including continuing to play after a concussion or head injury. Each coach (whether employed or volunteer) must complete an annual concussion recognition education course. Requirements for the course are outlined in the statute. Each youth athlete and their parents or guardian must sign an information sheet outlining the requirements which must be satisfied before an athlete who has suffered a concussion or head injury may return to play. The statute requires a coach to immediately remove any youth athlete from a game, competition or practice if: (1) the youth athlete reports any defined sign or symptom of a concussion, (2) the coach, athletic trainer or official determines that the youth athlete exhibits any defined sign or symptom of a concussion or suspects a concussion, (3) the coach or official is notified that the youth athlete has reported or exhibited a sign or symptom of a concussion by a medical health care provider or other licensed individual (as defined in the statute). Once an athlete is removed from play, the coach must notify the athlete’s parent or guardian and the student may not return to play or participate in supervised team activities (games, competition or practices), until they are evaluated and given written clearance to return to play. In addition, it requires the Department of Health to make information about the nature and risk of concussion and head injury to all public and private middle and high schools, private clubs, public recreation facilities and each athletic league which sponsors youth athletic activities.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


Massachusetts

Last Updated: 12/28/2010

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: General Law Chapter 111 Section 222 (2010) requires the Department of Education to direct the division of violence and injury prevention to develop a head injury safety training program in which all public schools and any school subject to the Massachusetts Interscholastic Athletic Association rules shall participate. Participation in the program shall be required annually of coaches, trainers and parent volunteers for any extracurricular athletic activity; physicians and nurses who are employed by a school or school district or who volunteer to assist with an extracurricular athletic activity; school athletic directors; directors responsible for a school marching band; and a parent or legal guardian of a child who participates in an extracurricular athletic activity.  The training program must include (1) training in recognizing the symptoms of potentially catastrophic head injuries, concussion and injuries related to second impact syndrome and (2) safety rules and regulations, including information regarding post-concussion participation, and symptoms and consquences of a concussion.

General Law Chapter 111 Section 222 (2010) prohibits a student that has become unconscious during a practice or competition been diagnosed with a concussion by a medical professional from returning to practice or competition or participating in any extracurricular activity until they provide written authorization from a licensed medical provider. It also states that coaches, trainers or volunteers for extracurricular athletic activity may not encourage or permit a student engage in any unreasonably dangerous athletic technique that unnecessarily endangers the health of a student, including using a helmet or any other sports equipment as a weapon.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


Maryland

Last Updated: 10/29/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: State Board of Education Regulation 13A.06.03.02 (1994) sets the eligibility requirements for student participation in interscholastic athletics at the high school level.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head InurySB 771 (2011) defines concussion, student athlete, and youth recreational sports program, and requires the Departments of Education and Health, county boards of education, Maryland Public Secondary Schools Athletic Association, Maryland Athletic Trainers Association and the Brain Injury Association of Maryland to develop policies and implement a concussion program to provide awareness to coaches, school personnel, student athletes and parents and guardians of student athletes. The program must include the following:

  • The nature and risk of a concussion and head injury
  • Criteria for removal from and return to play
  • Risk of not reporting injury and continuing to play
  • Appropriate academic accommodations for student athetes suspected of sustaining a concussion or other head injury
  • A process to verify that coaches have received information about the concussion program

The Policies and Programs on Youth on Concussions for Public School and Youth Programs (2012) address these requirements.  Regulation 13a.06.08.04 requires each school to implement policies consistent with the document above.

SB 771 (2011) also requires county school boards must provide student athletes with information about concussions and head-injuries prior to participation in an athletic activity. Student athletes and their parents or guardians must sign a statement acknowledging receipt. Student athletes suspected of sustaining a concussion or any other head injury at a practice or game must be removed from play and may not return until they have received written clearance from a licensed health care provider trained in the evaluation and management of concussions and head injuries.

Regulation 13a.06.08.04 requires each local school system to train each coach in concussion risk and management. Requirements for the training are outlined in the regulation. Regulation 13A.06.08.06 requires any student suspected of sustaining a concussion to be removed from practice or play. Schools must use the graduated return to play protocols in the Policies and Programs on Youth on Concussions for Public School and Youth Programs (2012). To return to play, the student must receive medical clearance from one of the licensed medical practitioners outlined in the regulation.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): Code 7-425 (2006) requires each county board to develop an AED program for each high school in the county. The program must ensure that an AED is provided on site and an individual trained in the operation and use of an AED is present at all school-sponsored athletic events.


Maine

Last Updated: 12/30/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head InjuryHP 84 (2011) requires that the Commissioner of Education adopt a policy on the management of head injuries in school athletic activities accordance with requirements in the Act. The Commissioner is required to convene a working group to provide guidance and advice on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of concussive and other head injuries in student athletes.  The working group shall advise the commissioner on the updating of the concussion policy as medical knowledge of head injuries. The policy adopted by the Commissioner under this Act must be distributed to school administrative units and schools in the State. Specific requirements for the policy are outlined in the Act, including protocols and forms for use by schools in the implementation of the policy on the management of head injuries, required annual parental review of the policy, removal from play and immediate evaluation for brain injury upon suspected head injury, and required clearance from a licensed neurologist or athletic trainer before returning to play. All public schools and private schools enrolling more than 60% of students at public expense are required to adopt a policy on the management of head injuries that is consistent with the policy of the Commissioner. The Management of Concussions and Other Head Injuries Model Policy meets the requirements of HP 84 (2011).  

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


Michigan

Last Updated: 5/23/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head InjuryPublic Act 342 (2012) requires the department of education to develop educational materials on the nature and risks of concussions, and a concussion awareness training program that addresses the following: the nature and risk of concussions, criteria for removal in case of suspected concussion, and the risks to an athlete of not reported a suspected concussion, and the risks of return to play.


Automated External Defibrillator (AED):  No state policy.


Minnesota

Last Updated: 6/15/2011

Interscholastic Athletics: Statute 121A.04 (2003) requires each educational institution to provide equal opportunities for both sexes to participate in its athletic program.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Code 121A.37 (2011) requires the appropriate sports governing body to work with public and nonpublic school coaches, officials, and youth athletes and their parents or guardians to make information available about the nature and risks of concussions.  Requirements of the information are outlined in the statute. The sports governing body must provide access to the Concussion in Youth Sports online training program, and each school coach and official involved in youth athletic activities must receive initial online training and online training at least once every three school years thereafter.  At the start of each school year, school officials must make information available about the nature and risks of concussion to youth athletes and their parents or guardians. A coach or official must remove a youth athlete from participating in any youth athletic activity when they exhibit signs, symptoms or behaviors consistent with a concussion or is suspected of sustaining a concussion. Once removed from play, the youth athlete may not return to the activity until they no longer exhibit signs, symptoms or behaviors consistent with a concussion. In addition, they must be evaluated by a provider trained and experienced in evaluating and managing concussions. The provider must provide written permission to return to play.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


Missouri

Last Updated: 9/22/2011

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Code 167.765 requires the department of health and senior services to work with various organizations (outlined in the statute) to promulgate rules which develop guidelines, pertinent information, and forms to educate coaches, youth athletes, and their parents and guardians of the nature and risk of concussion and brain injury including continuing to play after concussion or brain injury.  Each school district must annually distribute a concussion and brain injury information sheet to each youth athlete participating in the district’s athletic program. The sheet must be signed by their parent or guardian prior to participation in practice or competition. A youth who has been removed from play may not return to competition until they are evaluated by a licensed health care provider and given written clearance.

Code 167.775 requires any statewide athletic organization with public school membership to publish an annual report relating to the impact of concussions and head injuries on student athletes. The report must be distributed to a list of legislative committees outlined in the statute.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


Mississippi

Last Updated: 12/28/2010

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury:  No state policy.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


Montana

Last Updated: 12/31/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: SB 0112 (2013) requires each school district in the state that offers organized youth athletic activities to adopt policies and procedures to inform athletic trainers, coaches, officials, youth athletes, and parents or guardians of the nature and risk of brain injuries, including the effects of continuing to play after a concussion. The policies must be consistent with CDC guidance. The policy requires that a youth athlete’s parent or guardian must annually sign and return a form documenting the receipt of educational materials as described in the policy. School districts must ensure access to a training program as described in the policy. Each coach, athletic trainer and official participating in organized youth athletic activities must complete the training program at least once a school year. The policy also requires an athletic trainer, coach or official to remove a youth athlete from participation in any organized youth athletic activity at the time they exhibit signs, symptoms, or behaviors consistent with a concussion. Once removed from play, they may not return to the activity until they no longer exhibit signs, symptoms or behaviors consistent with a concussion, and receive an evaluation and written clearance from a licensed health care provider. Requirements for the clearance are outlined in the policy.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


North Carolina

Last Updated: 9/8/2011

Interscholastic Athletics: 16 NCAC 06E .0202 (2000) only allows students in grades 7-12 to participate in interscholastic athletic competition. Requirements to qualify for participation are outlined in the code.

Concussion and Sports-related Head Injury: Statute 115C-12(23) (2011) requires the Department of Public Instruction, along with other organizations outlined in the statute, to develop an athletic concussion safety training program for the use of coaches, school nurses, school athletic directors, volunteers, students who participate in interscholastic athletic activities in public schools and their parents. The requirements of the program are outlined in the statute. The statute requires the State Board of Education to adopt rules governing interscholastic athletic activities conducted by local boards of education, including eligibility for student participation. The rules must require all coaches, school nurses, athletic directors, first responders, volunteers, and students who participate in interscholastic athletic activities and their parents to receive a concussion and head injury information sheet annually. School employees, first responders, volunteers, and students must sign the sheet and return it to the coach before they can participate in interscholastic athletic activities. Parents must sign and return the sheet before their children can participate in any interscholastic activities. A student participant exhibiting symptoms consistent with concussion must be removed from the activity and may not return to play or practice that day. They may return to play or practice on a subsequent day only upon being evaluated and cleared in writing by a licensed professional (as defined in the statute). The statute requires each school to develop a venue specific emergency action plan to deal with serious injuries and acute medical conditions in which the condition of the patient may deteriorate rapidly. Requirements of the plan are outlined in the statute.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


North Dakota

Last Updated: 12/27/2011

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury:  Code 15.1-18.2 states that each school district and nonpublic school that sponsors or sanctions any athletic activity and requires a participating student to regularly practice, train and compete is subject to the terms of a concussion management program. The program must address the signs and symptoms of a concussion and require that an official must remove a student from competition and an athletic trainer must remove a student from practice, training or competition if (1) a student reports any sign or symptom of a concussion, (2) an official, coach or athletic trainer determines that the student exhibits any sign or symptom of a concussion, or (3) an official, coach or athletic trainer is notified that the student has reported or exhibited any sign or symptom of a concussion by a licensed, registered or certified health care provider. The concussion management program must require that any student who is removed must be examined by a licensed, registered or certified health care provider whose scope of practice includes the diagnosis and treatment of concussion. A student who is removed may not return to practice, training or competition until they receive written authorization from a licensed, registered or certified health care provider.  Districts are required to provide students and their parents with information regarding concussions. The parent must document that they have viewed the information.

The program must require each official, coach and athletic trainer to receive biennial training regarding the nature and risk of concussion. 


Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


Nebraska

Last Updated: 7/22/2012

Interscholastic Athletics: Statute 79-2,116 (no date available) declares it unfair and discriminatory to deny comparable opportunity for interscholastic and intramural athletic programs for both genders.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Automated External Defibrillator (AED): Statute 71-9104 (2012) requires each approved or accredited public, private, denominational or parochial school to do the following:

(1)    Make available training approved by the chief medical officer on how to recognize the symptoms of a concussion or brain injury and how to seek proper medical treatment for a concussion or brain injury to all coaches of school athletic teams;
(2)    Require that concussion and brain injury information be provided on an annual basis to students and the students’ parents or guardians prior to such students initiating practice or competition. The requirements of the of the information is outlined in the statute.
(3)    A student who participates on a school athletic team must be removed from a practice or game when he or she is reasonably suspected of having sustained a concussion or brain injury in a practice or game after observation by a coach or licensed health care professional who is affiliated with or contracted by the school. The student may not be permitted to participate in any school supervised team athletic events involving physical exertion including practice or games until they have been evaluated by a licensed health care professional and received and submitted written clearance, along with written permission to resume participation from their parent or guardian.
(4)    A parent or guardian must be notified if a student is reasonably suspected of having sustained a concussion or brain injury and is removed from athletic activity.

 


New Hampshire

Last Updated: 12/30/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury200:49 (2012) encourages school boards of each district to develop guidelines and other pertinent information and forms for student sports to inform and educate coaches, student-athletes, and student-athletes’ parents or guardians of the nature and risk of concussion and head injury. 200:50 (2012) requires a school employee coach, official, licensed athletic trainer, or health care provider who suspects that a student-athlete has sustained a concussion or head injury in a practice or game to remove them from play immediately. They may not return to play on the same day or until they are evaluated by a health care provider and receives written medical clearance to return to play. The athlete must also present written permission from a parent or guardian to return to play. 200:51 (2012) also provides for immunity from liability for school districts, district employees and volunteers for good faith conduct arising or pertaining to the injury or death of a student athlete, provided it was in compliance with the local school board policies.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.


New Jersey

Last Updated: 9/20/2013

Interscholastic Sports:  NJAC 6A:16 requires a medical examination prior to participation on a school-sponsored interscholastic or intramural team or squad for students enrolled in grades 6-12.

Concussion or Sports-Related Head Injury: N.J.S.A. 18A: 40-41 through 18A: 40-41.3 requires the Department of Education to develop an interscholastic head injury safety training program. The program must include the following: (1) the recognition of the symptoms of head and neck injuries, concussions, and injuries related to second-impact syndrome; and (2) the appropriate amount of time to delay the return to sports competition or practice of a student-athlete who has sustained a concussion or other head injury. It also requires the Department of Education to develop an educational fact sheet about sports-related concussions and other head injuries, and requires public and non-public schools that participate in interscholastic sports to distribute the information annually to parents and guardians of student athletes, along with a signature acknowledging receipt. Furthermore, it requires each school district to develop a written policy concerning the prevention and treatment of sports-related concussions and other head injuries among student-athletes. To assist in this, the Commissioner of Education must develop a model policy applicable to grades K-12.

N.J.S.A. 18A: 40-41.4 (2010) requires removal of a student-athlete from competition or practice if he or she has sustained or is suspected to have sustained a concussion or other head injury. The student athlete may not participate in further sports activity until evaluated by a physician or licensed health care provider trained in the management and evaluation of concussions, and receives written clearance to return. N.J.S.A. 18A: 40-41.5 (2010) provides immunity from liability for school districts for the death or injury of a person due to the action or inaction of persons employed by or under contract with a youth sports team, provided there is an insurance policy of not less than $50,000 per person per incident, and a statement of compliance with the school district or nonpublic school's policies for the management of concussions and other head injuries.

Sports-Related Drug Testing: N.J.S.A. 18A: 40A-23 (2005) allows boards of education to adopt a policy for the random testing of the districts students in grades 9-12 who participate in extracurricular activities, including interscholastic athletics, or who possess parking permits for the use of controlled dangerous substances, including as defined in N.J.S.A. 2C:35-2 and 24:21-2 or alcoholic beverages, as defined in N.J.S.A. 33:1-1. The collection of specimens for alcohol or other drug testing is limited to the school physician, school nurse or a physician, laboratory, or health care facility designated by the board of education, with the cost being paid by the board, in a State-licensed collection station or clinical laboratory, in accordance with N.J.S.A. 45:9-42.26 et seq. and N.J.A.C. 8:44, 8:45 and 6A:16-4.4(c).

Executive Order 72 (2005) requires the Department of Education to work in conjunction with the New Jersey State Interscholastic Athletic Association (NJSIAA) to develop and implement a program of random testing for steroids of teams and individual students qualifying for championship games.  Under the NJSIAA policy, students are required to consent in writing to random testing before participating in interscholastic sports.  Tested athletes are to be selected from all athletes participating in championship competition.

Automated External Defribrillator:  HB 1608 (2012) requires each board of education and admninistrators of non-public schools to ensure that each public school has a defribrillator available in an unlocked location on school property with an identifying sign. It also requires a coach, athletic trainer or other designated staff member who is trained in cardio-pulmonary resucitation and the use of the defribrillator to be present during an athletic event or practice. It provides for immunity from civil liability for a school district and its employees. It requires a school board or administrator of a non-public school to establish an action plan for responding to a sudden cardiac arrest event.


New Mexico

Last Updated: 6/21/2010

Interscholastic Athletics: State Board of Education Administrative Code 6.13.2.9 NMAC (2000) states that interscholastic activities are an integral and essential component of the curricula within New Mexico schools. These activities must be fair, open and consistent and organized, supervised, and regulated by both the State Board of Education and the New Mexico Activities Association. State Board of Educaiton Administrative Code 6.13.3.8 NMAC (2000) sets the eligibility requirements for student participation in interscholastic student activities. State Board of Education Administrative Code 6.13.4.8 NMAC (2000) requires local school boards to comparable athletic opportunities for both sexes.
 
Concussion and Sports-Related Head InjurySB1 (2010) prohibits a coach from allowing a student athlete from participating in a school athletic activity on the same day that the student exhibits signs, symptoms or behaviors exhibits signs, symptoms or behaviors consistent with a brain injury after a coach, a school official or a student athlete reports, observes or suspects that a student athlete exhibiting these signs, symptoms or behaviors has sustained a brain injury; or has been diagnosed with a brain injury. A coach may allow a student athlete who has been prohibited from participating in a school athletic activity toparticipate again no sooner than one week after the student athlete has received a brain injury and only after the student athlete: (1) no longer exhibits any sign, symptom or behavior consistent with a brain injury; and(2) receives a medical release from a licensed health care professional.
 


Nevada

Last Updated: 9/13/2011

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: AB455 (2011) requires the Nevada Interscholastic Activities Association (NIAA)  to adopt a policy concerning the prevention and treatment of head injuries and concussion which may occur during a student’s participation in interscholastic activities. The policy must (1) provide information concerning the nature and risk of injuries to the head, including risks of continuing to play after sustaining an injury and (2) require that if a student sustains or is suspected of sustaining an injury to the head while participating in an interscholastic activity or event they must be immediately removed and return to the activity only after being medically cleared in writing by a health care provider (as defined in the statute). Students and their parent or guardian must annually sign a form acknowledging that they have read and understood the terms of the policy.  

For those competitive sports not governed by NIAA, the board of trustees of each school district must adopt a policy concerning the prevention and treatment of injuries to the head, including concussions. To the extent practicable, the policy must be consistent with the policy developed by NIAA. Additional requirements similar to those for NIAA governed sports are outlined in the statute.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): AB 441 (2003) requires the board of trustees in school districts whose populations is 100,000 or more to ensure that an AED is placed at each high school in the district.
 


New York

Last Updated: 10/29/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: 3935-A (2011) requires the commissioners of education and health to establish rules and regulations for the treatment and monitoring of students of school districts, boards of cooperative educational services, and nonpublic schools who suffer traumatic brain injury. The rules must require the immediate removal from athletic activities of any pupil believed to have sustained a mild traumatic brain injury. No pupil may resume athletic activity until they have been symptom free for not less than 24 hours and been evaluated and received written authorization from a physician trained in the evaluation and treatment of mild traumatic brain injuries. The rules must provide guidelines for limitations and restrictions on school attendance and activities for pupils who have sustained concussions. The policy also requires the commissioners to establish a course of instruction relating to the recognition, treatment and monitoring of pupils who receive a concussion, and to develop an informational pamphlet relating to concussions. The pamphlet must be provided to every pupil participating in interscholastic sports, and their parent or guardian. The commissioners must establish rules and regulations requiring every school district and board of cooperative educational services to establish a concussion management team. 

Automated External Defibrillator (AED):
Education Law 917 requires school districts, boards of cooperative educational services, county vocational education and extension boards and charter schools to provide and maintain on-site in each instructional school facility automated external defibrillator (AED) equipment.


Ohio

Last Updated: 12/31/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Sec. 3313.539 requires that no school district board of education or governing authority of a chartered or nonchartered nonpublic school permit a student to practice for or compete in interscholastic athletics until they have submitted a form signed by the parent, guardian or other person in charge of care stating that they have received the concussion and head injury information sheet on concussions. This must be done on an annual basis. The policy requires coaches and referees to hold a permit issued under section 3319.303, or a referee may present evidence of completing a training program in recognizing the symptoms of concussions and head injuries. The policy requires that student’s coach or person serving as a referee remove a student be removed from practice or competition if they exhibit signs, symptoms, or behaviors consistent with having sustained a concussion or head injury. After removal from play, the referee or coach that removed the student may not allow them to return to practice or competition on the same day, either that practice or competition or another for which they are responsible. The student may not return to practice or competition until their condition is assessed by a physician, any other licensed health care provider that the school district board of education or governing authority authorizes to assess a student removed from practice or competition, and received written clearance to return. A school district or governing authority may authorize a licensed health care provider who is not a physician to make an assessment or grant clearance for purpose of this policy (requirements for this is outlined in the statute). The policy outlines limitations for liability for school districts, employees and volunteers.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED):
Code 3313.717 allows the board of education of each school district and the administrative authority of each chartered nonpublic school to require the placement of an AED in each school under the control of the board or authority. If a board or authority requires the placement of an automated external defibrillator as provided in this section, the it also shall require that a sufficient number of the staff persons assigned to each school under the control of the board or authority complete an appropriate training course in the use of the AED as described.


Oklahoma

Last Updated: 12/28/2010

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Head Related Sports Injury: SB1700 (2010) requires each school district to work in cooperation with the Oklahoma Secondary School Activities Association to develop the guidelines, forms and other pertinent information to educate coaches, young athletes and their parents or guardians of the nature and risk of concussion and head injury, including continuing to play after an incident. Youth athletes and their parents must annually review and return information on concussion and head injury prior to their participation in practice or competition. The statute requires removal of a youth athlete with a suspected concussion from a practice or game. Once removed, they may not participate until they are evaluated and given clearance by a licensed health care provider trained in evaluation and management of concussion management. The health care provider may be a volunteer. A volunteer authorizing a young athlete to return to participation has immunity from liability for civil damages, other than acts or omissions constituting gross negligence or willful or wanton misconduct.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): No state policy.
 


Oregon

Last Updated: 12/28/2010

Interscholastic Athletics: OAR 581-022-1680 (1996) states that school districts may only allow those organizations to administer interscholastic activities which have been approved by the state board.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury:
SB348 (2009) requires each school district to ensure that coaches receive annual training on recognizing the symptoms of a concussion and seeking proper medical treatment for a person suspected of having a concussion. The Board must establish the requirements of the training and timelines to ensure that, to the extent practicable, every coach receives the training before the beginning of the season for the school athletic team. A coach may not allow a member of a school athletic team to participate in any athletic event or training on the same day that the member (1) Exhibits signs, symptoms or behaviors consistent with a concussion following an observed or suspected blow to the head or body, or (2) Has been diagnosed with a concussion. A coach may allow a member of a school athletic team who is prohibited from participating in an athletic event or training to participate in an athletic event or training (1) No sooner than the day after he or she experienced a blow to the head or body, (2) Only after they no longer exhibits signs, symptoms or behaviors consistent with a concussion, and (3) Upon receiving a medical release form from a health care provider. Oregon Adminstrative Rule 581-022-0421 (2010) further outlines these statuatory requirements.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): SB1033 (2010) requires each school campus to have one AED on the premises. Schools have until 2015 to comply with this requirement.
 


Pennsylvania

Last Updated: 12/31/2013

The Sudden Cardiac Arrest Prevention Act (2012) requires the Department of Education to develop and post on their websites guidelines and other relevant materials to inform and educate students participating in or desiring to participate in an athletic activity, their parents and their coaches about the nature and warning signs of sudden cardiac arrest, including the risks associated with continuing to play or practice after experiencing one or more symptoms of sudden cardiac arrest, including fainting, difficulty breathing, chest pains, dizziness and abnormal racing heart rate. In addition, a student participating in or desiring to participate in an athletic activity and the student's parent or guardian shall, each school year and prior to participation by the student in an athletic activity, sign an an acknowledgment of receipt and review of a sudden cardiac arrest symptoms and warning signs information sheet. It also requires a student to be removed from participation by the coach if they exhibit signs or symptoms of sudden cardiac arrest while participating in an athletic activity. The student may not return to participation until they rae evaluated for return to particiapation in writing by a physician or other certified practitioner.

Interscholastic Athletics: 022 PA Code 4.27 (1999) requires students of both sexes to have equal access in interscholastic and intramural programs.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head InjurySB 200 (2011) requires the Department of Health and the Department of Education to develop and post on their website guidelines and other relevant materials to inform and educate students participating in or desiring to participate in an athletic activity, their parents and coaches, about the nature and risk of concussion and traumatic brain injury. Students participating or desiring to participate in an athletic activity and their parent or guardian must sign and return an acknowledgement of and receipt and review of a concussion and traumatic brain injury information sheet on an annual basis. The policy requires removal from play for any student, as determined by a game official, coach from the student’s team, certified athletic trainer, licensed physician, licensed physical therapist or other official designated by the student’s school entity, exhibits signs or symptoms of a concussion or traumatic brain injury while participating in an athletic activity. The student may not return to participation until they are evaluated and cleared in writing by a medical professional, as defined in the policy. Coaches must annually complete the concussion management certification training course offered by the CDC, National Federation of State High school Associations or another provider approved by the Department of Health. Coaches may not coach an athletic activity until completing the course. The policy establishes penalties for coaches found in violation of the requirements.


Rhode Island

Last Updated: 2/13/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Statute 16-91-3 (2011) requires the department of education and the Department of Health to work together with the Rhode Island interscholastic League to develop and promulgate guidelines to inform and educate coaches, youth athletes, and their parents and/or guardians of the nature and risk of concussion and head injury including continuing to play after concussion or head injury. The statute requires parents or guardians to be provided with a concussion and head injury information sheet to be signed and returned by the youth athlete and their parent and/or guardian prior to the youth athlete’s return to practice or competition. It also requires school districts to use training materials made available by the CDC ("Heads Up: Concussion in the High School Sports/Concussion in Youth Sports") for training. The Department of Education must post training materials made available by the CDC on its website. It requires All coaches and volunteers involved in a youth sport or activity covered by this chapter must complete a training course and a refresher course annually thereafter in concussions and traumatic brain injuries. School districts are encouraged to have school nurses complete a training course in concussions and traumatic brain injuries.

School districts are encouraged to have all student athletes perform baseline neuropsychological testing, computerized or otherwise. Parents and/or guardians shall be provided with information as to the risk of concussion and/or traumatic brain injuries prior to the start of every sport season and they shall sign an acknowledgement as to their receipt of such information.

A youth athlete who is suspected of sustaining a concussion or head injury in a practice or game shall be removed from competition at that time.

A youth athlete, who has been removed from play, may not return to play until the athlete is evaluated by a licensed physician who may consult with an athletic trainer, all of whom shall be trained in the evaluation and management of concussions. The athlete must receive written clearance to return to play from that licensed physician.


South Carolina

Last Updated: 12/30/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: State Board of Education Regulation R 43-244 (1980) prohibits schools serving grades 1-6 from providing competitive sports "of a varsity pattern with scheduled league games and championships." State Board of Education Regulation R 43-244.1 (1988) and Code 59-39-160 (no date available) outline the academic requirements for students in grades 9-12 to participate in interscholastic activities.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head injury: Code 59-63-75 requires the Department of Health and the Department of Education to post on their websites nationally recognized guidelines and procedures regarding the identification and management of suspected concussions in student athletes. The Department of Health must also post on its website model policies for the identification, management, and return to play decisions for concussions. The model policies can be found on this page.  The policy requires local school districts to develop guidelines and procedures based on the model guidelines and procedures outlined by the Department. School districts also must annually provide all coaches, volunteers, student athletes and their parents or legal guardian, an information sheet on concussions informing them of the nature and risks. Receipt of the information must be documented in writing or by electronic means prior to participation in athletic competition or practice. The policy requires a student athlete to be removed from practice or competition if a coach, athletic trainer, official or physician suspects that they have sustained a concussion. The student athlete may return to play if, as a result of evaluating the student athlete on site, the athletic trainer, physician, physician assistant or nurse practitioner determines that they do not have any signs or symptoms of a concussion or brain injury. A student athlete who has been removed from play and evaluated and who is suspected of having a concussion or brain injury may not return to play until they have received written medical clearance from a physician. The policy provides immunity from liability for those evaluating a student athlete during practice or an athletic competition, other than in acts or omission constituting gross negligence or wilful, wanton misconduct.


Automated External Defibrillator (AED): HB3723 (2008) requires each school to develop and implement an AED program for each high school in the district. The program must  require an operational AED on the grounds of the high school, require all persons expected to use the AED to receive the appropriate training. It also provides for immunity from civil liability for the use of an automated external defibrillator unless the person was grossly negligent in the use.


South Dakota

Last Updated: 1/12/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: Statute 13-36-4 (2003) gives the school board power to delegate the control, supervision, and regulation of any high school interscholastic activities to any voluntary, non-profit association Statute 13-36-7 (2003) deems any student enrolled in a public school district eligible to participate in any interscholastic activity sponsored by the SD High School Activities Association.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Statute 13-36 (2011) requires the South Dakota High Schools Activities Association to develop guidelines to inform and educate member schools, coaches, athletes and parents to the nature and risk of concussion. Each athlete must sign a concussion information sheet prior to their participation in youth athletic activities. Requirements for the information sheet and the guidelines are outlined in the statute. I also requires the South Dakota High School Activities Association and the Department of Education to develop a training program for coaches, which they must attend each year. It requires athletes to be removed from play at the time an athlete exhibits signs, symptoms or behaviors consistent with concussion, or is suspected of sustaining a concussion.


Tennessee

Last Updated: 12/31/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: Rules of the State Board of Education, Minimum Requirements for the Approval of Public Schools 0520-1-3-.05 (2008) states interscholastic athletics shall not be substituted for the wellness requirement.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Code 18-2-25a (2013) requires the governing authority of each public and nonpublic elementary school, middle school, junior high school and high school, working through guidance approved by the department of health and communicated through the department of education, to do the following:

(A) Adopt guidelines and other pertinent information and forms as approved by the department of health to inform and educate coaches, school administrators, youth athletes and their parents or guardians of the nature, risk and symptoms of concussion and head injury, including continuing to play after concussion or head injury;

(B) Require annual completion by all coaches, whether the coach is employed or a volunteer, and by school athletic directors of a concussion recognition and head injury safety education course program approved by the department. Requirements for the program are outlined in the policy.

(C) Require that a concussion and head injury information sheet be signed and returned by each coach and athletic director annually, if appointed, the team medical provider to the lead administrator of a nonpublic school or, for a public school, the local education agency's director of schools prior to initiating practice or competition for the year;

(D) Require that a concussion and head injury information sheet be reviewed by all youth athletes and an athlete's parent or guardian annually. The information sheet shall be signed and returned by the youth athlete, if the youth athlete is eighteen (18) years of age or older, otherwise by the athlete’s parent or guardian, prior to the youth athlete’s initiating practice or competition to confirm that both the parent or guardian and the youth athlete have reviewed the information and  understand its contents. Requirements for the information sheet are outlined in the policy

(E) Maintain all documentation of the completion of a concussion recognition and head injury safety education course program and signed concussion and head injury information sheets for a period of three (3) years. 

Automatic External Defibrillator (AED):
Code 49-2-126 (2010) requires each local education agency to place an AED device in each school. AEDs must be placed in locations that are accessible during emergency situations and not in an office that is not accessible to any person who might need to use the AED or a location that is locked during times that students, parents or school employees are present at school or school events. Each LEA must annually review the efficacy of AEDs, ensure that they are placed in optimal locations and that all necessary training has been conducted.

Sports-Related Drug Testing: Code 49-6-4213 (2010)  allows a student to be subject to testing for the presence of drugs if there are reasonable indications to the principal that the student may have used or be under the influence of drugs. The need for such testing may be brought to the attention of the principal through a search authorized by §49-6-4204 or §49-6-4205, observed or reported use of drugs by the student on school property, or other reasonable information received from a teacher, staff member or other student. Standards for reasonableness outlined in the statute must be met to conduct the testing. The statute allows a student participating in voluntary extracurricular activities to be subject to random drug testing in the absence of individualized reasonable suspicion. Each LEA participating in the drug testing of students must develop policies and procedures to ensure that those students receive the assistance needed, including an assessment to determine the severity of the student's alcohol and drug problem and a recommendation for referral to intervention or treatment resources as appropriate. If an LEA adopts a policy permitting random drug testing of students in voluntary extracurricular activities, it must notify the parents and guardians that the student may be subjected to random drug testing prior to a student participating in an extracurricular activity, with the parent or guardian providing written consent. If a student is tested in a drug testing program and the results of the test are positive, all records of the test must be confidential. A student tested under a random drug testing program may not be suspended or expelled from school solely as the result of the positive test.


Texas

Last Updated: 9/16/2011

Interscholastic Athletics: TAC 76.1001 (2003) states that an extracurricular activity is an activity sponsored by the school district that is not necessarily directly related to instruction of the essential knowledge and skills but may have an indirect relation to some areas of the curriculum. Further provisions of extracurricular activities are provided in the code.

Sports-Related Drug Testing: Education Code 33.091 (2007) requires the University Interscholastic League to develop rules for an annual random steroid testing program for high school students participating in athletic competition. The program must require the testing of a statistically significant number of students multiple times throughout the year at approximately 30 percent of high schools that participate in athletic competitions sponsored by the League. Information about the program can be found here.

Concussion and Sports Related Head Inury: Education Code 33.201 (2007) requires a school district to provide training to student participating in an extracurricular athletic activity about recognizing the symptoms of potentially catastrophic injuries, including head and neck injuries, concussions and injuries related to second impact syndrome. It also prohibits a coach, trainer or sponsor of an extracurricular athletic activity from encouraging or permitting a student that became unconscious during an extracurricular athletic activity from returning to practice or competition. The student may not participate in any extracurricular athletic activity until they receive written authorization for participation from a physician. The statute provides immunity from liability for civil damages for volunteers assisting with extracurricular activities, except when the act or omission is willfully or wantonly negligent.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED): Education Code 38.017 (2007) requires each school district to make available at each campus at least one automated external defibrillator (AED).  The defibrillator must be available at each athletic practice held at a district campus. Each district campus must ensure the presence of at least one campus or district employee trained in the use of the defibrillator each time a substantial number of students are present. Each school district is required to develop safety procedures for a district or school employee to follow when responding to a medical emergency.


Utah

Last Updated: 6/8/2011

Interscolastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Code 26-53-102 (2011) requires each amateur sports organization (definition includes public and private schools) to adopt and enforce a concussion and head injury policy that describes the nature and risk of a concussion or traumatic head injury and risk of continuing to participate in a sporting event after sustaining such an injury. The policy must ensure that each athlete of the organization is familiar with and has a copy of the policy and has a signed written copy from the parent or legal guardian of the athlete. Each agent (i.e., coach) of the school must immediately remove a child from participating in a sporting event if the child is suspected of sustaining a concussion or a traumatic head injury. The athlete may not participate in a school-related sporting event until they are evaluated by a qualified health care provider trained in the evaluation and management of a concussion.  The provider must give a written statement stating that they have, within the past 3 years, successfully completed a continuing education course in the evaluation and management of a concussion, and clear the child to resume participation in the sporting event.


Virginia

Last Updated: 6/21/2010

Interscholastic Athletics: Code 22.1-276.3 (2005) requires any organization governing interscholastic activities among public high schools to develop, implement, and enforce rules stating that any school athletic team member determined to have used anabolic steroids during the training period to be ineligible for 2 years to compete in interscholastic athletic competition unless prescribed by a licensed physician for a medical condition.

Concussion and Sports Related Brain Injury: Code 22.1-275.1 (2010) requires the Board of Education to develop and distribute to each local school division guidelines on policies to inform and educate coaches, student-athletes, and their parents or guardians of the nature and risk of concussions, criteria for removal from and return to play, and risks of not reporting the injury and continuing to play. Each local local school division must then develop policies and procedures regarding the identification and handling of suspected concussion in student-athletes. The policies must (1) Require the student athlete and their parent or guardian to annually review and sign information on concussions, (2) Require that a student athlete suspected by their coach, athletic trainer or team physician of sustaining a concussion or brain injury in a practice or game be removed from the activity at that time. Once removed, they may not return to play that same day nor until evaluated and cleared by a licensed health care provider. The licensed health care provider may be a volunteer.


Vermont

Last Updated: 9/13/2011

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: 16 V.S.A. Section 1162 (2011) requires the commissioner of education or designee, assisted by members of the Vermont Principal’s Association, to develop statewide guidelines, forms and other materials designed to educate coaches, youth athletes and their parents/guardians regarding the nature and risks of concussion and other head injuries, the risks of premature participation in athletic activities after a concussion or head injury and the importance of obtaining a medical evaluation of a suspected concussion or other head injury and receiving treatment when necessary. The principal/headmaster of each public school must ensure that the information is provided annually to each youth athletes and their parents/guardians and that they annually sign a form acknowledging receipt of the information and return it to the school prior to participation. 

The statute requires each coach of a school athletic team to receive training on how to recognize the symptoms of a concussion or other head injury at least every two years.  Coaches who are new to coaching at a school must receive training prior to beginning their first coaching assignment. A coach may not permit a student athlete to train or compete if they have been removed or prohibited from participating due to symptoms of a concussion or other head injury until they’ve been examined and given written clearance to participate in athletic activities from a health care provider trained in the evaluation and management of concussion and other head injuries.


Washington

Last Updated: 10/6/2010

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: RCW 28A.600 (2009) requires each school district's board of directors to work with the Washington interscholastic activities association to develop guidelines to inform and and educate coaches, youth athletes, and their parents and/or guardians of the nature and risk of concussion and head injury including continuing to play after concussion or head injury. Parents must sign and return a youth athlete’s concussion and head injury information sheet prior to them initiating practice or competition. A youth athlete who is suspected of sustaining a concussion or head injury in a practice or game must be removed from competition at that time. They may not return to play until the athlete is evaluated by a licensed health care provider trained in the evaluation and management of concussion and receives written clearance to return to play from that health care provider (who may be a volunteer). The statute provides immunity from liability for civil damages resulting from any act of omission to a volunteer who authorizes a youth athlete to return to play, except in circumstances of gross negligence or willful or wanton misconduct.


Wisconsin

Last Updated: 3/26/2013

Interscholastic Sports: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Statute 118.293 (2011) defines “youth athletic activity” as an organized athletic activity which the participants, a majority of whom are under 19 years of age, are engaged in an athletic game or competition agains another team, club or entity, or in practice or preparation for an organized athletic game or competition against another team, club or entity. It requires the State Department of Education, in consultation with the Wisconsin Interscholastic Athletic Association, to develop guidelines and other information for the purpose of educating athletic coaches and pupil athletes and their parents about the nature and risk of concussion and head injury in youth athletic activities. It requires the person operating the youth athletic activity to distribute concussion and head injury information to each person coaching and each participant. No person may participate in the activity unless they return the information sheet signed by the participant, or if under 19, by his or her parent or guardian. It requires an athletic coach, official involved in a youth athletic activity, or health care provider to remove a person from the activity if the coach, official or health care provider determines that the person exhibits signs, symptoms, or behavior consistent with a concussion or head injury, or they suspect a concussion or head injury. A person who has been removed from a youth athletic activity may not return to participate until they are evaluated by a health care provider and receive written clearance to participate. The law provides immunity from civil liability for any injury resulting from that omission unless it constitutes gross negligence or willful or wanton misconduct.


West Virginia

Last Updated: 12/30/2013

Interscholastic Athletics: Board Policy 2436.10 (1984) outlines the requirements for participating in nonacademic activities in grades 7-12.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Code 18-2-25a (2013) requires the West Virginia Secondary School Activities Commission to promulgate rules that address concussions and head injuries in interscholastic athletes. The policy requires the WVSSAC to submit the rule to the Legislative Oversight Commission on Educational Accountability prior to adoption by the State Board of Education. The rules must include the following:

     (1) Guidelines and forms to inform and educate appropriate school administrators, coaches, interscholastic athletes and their parents or guardians of the nature and risk of concussion and head injury including continuing to play or practice after a concussion or head injury;
     (2) A concussion and head injury information sheet to be signed and returned by the interscholastic athlete and the athlete's parent or guardian on an annual basis before beginning practice or competition;
     (3) A requirement that each head coach of an interscholastic sport at a high school or middle school that is a member of the West Virginia Secondary School Activities Commission complete a commission-approved concussion and head injury recognition and return-to-play protocol course annually;
     (4) Requirement for removal from play for an interscholastic athlete who is suspected by a licensed health care professional or by his or her head coach or athletic trainer of sustaining a concussion or head injury in a practice or game;
     (5) Requirement that an athlete who has been removed from practice or play may not return until they are evaluated and provided written clearance to return to play and practice by a licensed health care professional trained in the evaluation and management of concussions.
     (6) A list of the respective categories of licensed health care professionals who, if properly trained in the evaluation and management of concussions, are authorized to provide written clearance for the interscholastic athlete to return to play; and
     (7) A requirement that all member schools must submit a report to the West Virginia Secondary School Activities Commission within thirty days of an interscholastic athlete suffering or being suspected of suffering a concussion or head injury in a practice or game. Requirements for the report are outlined in the policy. 


Wyoming

Last Updated: 6/8/2011

Interscholastic Athletics: No state policy.

Concussion and Sports-Related Head Injury: Code 21-4-703 (2011) prohibits an athletic coach or trainer from allowing a student athlete to participate in a school athletic event on the same day that the athlete (1) exhibits signs, symptoms or behaviors consistent with a concussion or head injury after a coach, trainer, school official or student reports, observers or suspects that they have sustained a concussion or other head injury, or (2) has been diagnosed with a concussion or other head injury. An athletic coach or trainer may not allow a student who has been prohibited from participating to return any sooner than the day after receiving a blow to the body or head, and only after they no longer have symptoms or behavior consistent with a concussion or head injury, and receive a medical release from a licensed health care professional. Each school district must ensure that each athletic coach or trainer participating in school athletic activities receives training in concussions and head injuries.  The state board is required to establish protocols for training athletic coaches and trainers in concussions and head injuries.


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